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With the rising interest in captive propagation for avicultural and conserva- tion purposes generic 50 mg minomycin mastercard, modern avian theriogenology also in- cludes veterinary and avicultural techniques de- signed to maintain optimal production purchase minomycin 100mg online. Many 29 factors, including complex reproductive behaviors, affect avian reproduction. Avian clinicians can serve the avicultural community by developing a thorough understanding of the avicultural techniques, anat- omy, physiology, nutrition and behavior necessary to maintain long-term reproductive health for individ- ual pairs and the flock. Joyner selected for productivity traits are probably more susceptible to reproductive disorders than compan- ion bird species. The most common infectious agent affecting the reproductive tract of laying hens appears to be E. Additionally, more than one type of reproductive dis- order is often present; however, because of the com- mon pathogenesis of many of these disorders, pre- ventive and therapeutic considerations are generally similar irrespective of the etiology. This vesicle Female Reproductive formation continues until the entire follicle is cov- ered. As the largest follicle is absorbed, the smaller Anatomy and Egg Formation follicles will progress similarly. The right ovary and exhibit permanent ovarian involution, which is be- oviduct are present in embryonic stages, but these lieved to be a normal physiologic process. Aflatoxi- tissues normally regress before hatching in most cosis can also cause follicular atresia. In some species and individuals (raptors), these organs may be vestigial or functional post-hatching. The left ovary is located at the cranial Oviduct end of the kidney and is attached to the abdominal wall by the mesovarian ligament. In young birds the Understanding the anatomic divisions of the oviduct ovary is flattened, in an inverted “L”-shape. It has and their associated functions is important when nearly inappreciable folds and resembles a piece of discerning pathologic changes in the reproductive fat (see Color 13). During active egg laying, the oviduct enlarges become more prominent, small primary oocytes give and occupies much of the left abdomen. An ovary and oviduct tion in maturing hens causes a hierarchy of follicles can regress to a point where it is difficult to deter- to develop, giving the ovary the appearance of a mine if a hen has ever been reproductively active. As the The oviduct consists of five microscopically distin- breeding season approaches, the follicles undergo a guishable regions: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, period of rapid growth with the deposition of yolk uterus (shell gland) and vagina (Figure 29. At this point and ventral ligaments attach the oviduct in the peri- the yellow yolk is clearly visible through the highly 79 toneal cavity. The large follicle is sus- ment is clearly visible crossing the cranial division of pended by a stalk. The cranial oviduct and stronger smooth muscle contrac- hypertrophied granulosa cells are metabolically ac- tions in the uterus and vagina move the ovum down tive for several days and may not be reabsorbed until and the sperm up the reproductive tract. Oviduct eight to ten days post-ovulation in the chicken, and 100 transit time varies among species and is approxi- up to several months in the Mallard Duck. Similar transit times post-ovulatory follicle is thought to secrete non- are discussed in companion and aviary birds, with steroidal hormones that are involved in oviposition 86 the egg spending varying but proportional times in and nesting behavior. During the non-breeding season, the ovarian follicles The cranial infundibulum consists of a thin, nearly normally collapse and exhibit atresia. Two kinds of transparent finger-like funnel that engulfs the ovum atresia have been described. More curs when the follicle wall ruptures and yolk is harm- distally, the infundibular wall thickens as it becomes lessly released into the peritoneal cavity where it is tubular. Invasion atresia involves granulosa and seven centimeters long, while in the Brown Kiwi it theca cells invading the ovum with subsequent in extends the width of the peritoneal cavity to receive situ yolk absorption. The earliest detectable indica- 86 oocytes from functional left and right ovaries. Other species may have fundibulum, where sperm may reside in glandular only one set of these glands. Production glands remain fertile for 7 to 14 days in the chicken of the chalaziferous layer of the albumen and the and for 40 to 50 days in the turkey. It is the largest and most coiled portion of Primary oogenesis begins in the embryo when secon- the oviduct and deposits most of the albumen, so- dary oocytes are formed. Meiosis is arrested until dium, magnesium and calcium used in egg develop- adult life when follicles become active and grow in ment. The egg may remain in the magnum for three three phases, the first of which can last months to hours. The isthmus has less well developed circu- two lasts about 60 days in the domestic hen, and lar muscle and glandular tissue compared to the during this period some yolk is deposited in vacuoles magnum. This stage corresponds with ovar- ian regression that occurs in the non-breeding season The short uterus has numerous leaf-like lamellae in free-ranging species. This part of the uterus is ovoid in shape are both produced by the adenohypophysis under the and holds the egg during shell deposition. Stage three involves cranial aspect of the uterus is difficult to differentiate rapid yolk deposition and normally occurs in free- from the isthmus. Courtship 20 to 26 hours and receives salts, water, the shell and and nest-building activity seem to precede stage shell pigment.

If a seller isunwill- vide a minimum amount of separation between new ing to freely provide any requested information cheap minomycin 100mg fast delivery, the and established residents generic 100 mg minomycin with amex. Birds that are maintained buyer should be concerned about the validity of any in any enclosure (home or building) with the same air claims that are made concerning a pair of birds. The bowls and all handling equipment used for birds Evaluating a Prospective Purchase in quarantine should not come in contact with the The addition of new birds to an established aviary remainder of the birds in a collection. Additionally, new birds that are misrepre- New Bird Examination sented (inaccurately sexed or sold, due to previous Birds should be examined at the beginning of quar- reproductive failure) represent a loss to the avicul- antine to establish any pre-existing problems and turist by occupying space and requiring care that again at the end of quarantine to detect any clinical could be used for productive pairs. The bird’s quarantine is only a “safety valve” in the prevention gender and the visual health of the reproductive tract of infectious disease and does not ensure that a new should be confirmed by laparoscopy. Diagnostic test- bird is not an asymptomatic carrier of parasitic, bac- ing should be based on the client’s needs, species of terial or viral pathogens. The new bird exam and quarantine testing program should be tailored to the needs and resources of the Quarantine aviculturist and the species of bird. Suggested screening techniques would include a thorough A routine quarantine program for new birds is vital physical examination, Gram’s stain of feces and to protect an established avicultural collection from evaluation of a blood smear. The type of blood chemistry profile and cultures are useful to examinations performed, length of the quarantine detect birds that require more extensive evaluation. In essence, this testing allows the veterinarian to establish a “point- in-time” medical fingerprint for the individual bird. Direct and flotation examination of feces for internal para- sites should also be considered in birds that were recently imported or that are in flights with access to the ground (see Chapter 36). Any thin birds, espe- cially species susceptible to neuropathic gastric dila- tation (formerly proventricular dilatation syndrome) should be examined radiographically. Alternatively, a bird that was captive produced in another country and imported into the United Identification States could have a closed band and an open import band. Such Each new bird should be permanently identified dur- was the case in this macaw. Implantable transponders provide the least alterable identifica- Open bands are the least desirable but are none the tion with minimal risk to the bird. An alternative to removal of these bands is to fitting closed bands are an indication (not proof) that close them as tightly as possible, thereby reducing a bird was bred in captivity. Metal bands must be nately, the numbers often wear off closed bands and removed from the legs of birds exposed to sub-freez- large birds may collapse them, resulting in leg or foot ing temperatures, as they contribute to frostbite. In addition, bands can catch on loose enclo- importance of individual identification was graphi- sure wires. These disadvantages should not dissuade cally demonstrated in the aftermath of Hurricane the serious aviculturist from closed banding nor Andrew’s assault on South Florida in August 1992. The veterinarian can help the aviculturist establish a record system that is best for a particular facility, assist in developing and implementing effective iden- tification systems and evaluate production records. Records that include all available medical informa- tion should be established at the time the bird enters the aviary. Trends indicate an increasing interest in the estab- lishment of stud books and cooperative breeding pro- grams involving private aviculturists. Infected groups can then be Acclimation screened on an individual basis and treated as Birds should be acclimated to their new surround- needed. Birds may refuse food for several days (small birds) or up to a week (larger Annual prophylactic treatment for chlamydiosis is species), especially if the bird was a previous pet. Gavage feeding should outdoors and exposed to free-ranging birds, espe- be used only if the weight loss is dramatic (15% of cially pigeons. In most cases, the indiscriminate use initial weight) in order to avoid unnecessary stress. Exposing birds in bird that is reluctant to eat can be maintained on the a flock to unnecessary or sub-therapeutic levels of diet to which it is accustomed and slowly changed to antibiotics will create “super” strains of bacteria that the diet used by the aviculturist. If quality of water may cause temporary intestinal up- birds are medicated, treatment should be delayed set. A species that will be housed outdoors must be until the non-breeding season (the fall for most spe- slowly acclimated to its new climatic conditions. Egg production will typically decrease during Tropical birds can tolerate northern temperate cli- treatment, and chicks that hatch from eggs laid dur- mates if acclimated for several months before being ing treatment may have developmental abnormalities. Exposure to direct Commercially available oil emulsion adjuvant vac- sunlight can cause burns on the unfeathered portions cines for Pacheco’s virus disease, pox and salmonella of the face. These vac- exposed skin in feather-plucked birds will eventually cines were developed for use in wild-caught imported “tan” and show color changes indicative of melaniza- birds to prevent catastrophic disease outbreaks. Housing of affected birds indoors until the sever- ity of such reactions subsides may be helpful.

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Following a long-term course of doxy- cycline therapy generic minomycin 100 mg free shipping, the parasites were no longer identi- There are indications that diseases caused by rick- fiable in the erythrocytes cheap 50mg minomycin with mastercard. Tracheal these neonates were also positive for aegyptianella epithelial cells in Gouldian Finches with severe res- and responded to long-term doxycycline therapy. Electron mi- In gallinaceous birds, the age and condition of the host croscopy of the epithelial cells revealed particles that govern the pathogenesis and outcome of the infection. Treatment with tetracyclines was suc- one-day-old chicks, while by one year of age less than 16 cessful. Isolation was not possible because the mate- 1% of the erythrocytes may be infected. Incidence of Myco- lenge studies in budgerigars (Melop- Münch Tierärztl Wschr 90:140-143, 1966. Zbl Bakt Hyg I lung: Natürliche Infektionen bei tally infected with Mycoplasma gal- I, Grimm F: Vogelkrankheiten. Mycoplasma fron the avian oesopha- enza A virus and a mycoplasma asso- (eds): Diseases of Poultry 9th ed. Vet Rec like parasites seen in eclectus parrots (eds): Diseases of Poultry 9th ed. General anes- thesia, however, with appropriate agents, can enable clinicians to safely and rapidly perform fluid admini- stration, emergency procedures, blood collection and radiography, or to perform prolonged invasive surgi- cal procedures in avian patients. Many clinicians have had their preferred drug “cocktails,” and there were many conflicting views with regard to dosage ranges and choice of anesthetic regime. Anesthesia machines have been altered in an attempt to meet the specialized needs of avian patients, and numer- ous modified endotracheal tubes, non-rebreathing bags and delivery systems have been implemented. As in other animal species, general anesthesia in birds can be accomplished with either injectable or inhalant anesthetic agents. The goal of anesthetizing a patient is to select the safest drug that allows the minimum amount of physiologic changes. Sinn reader is referred to Section Seven for use of anes- thetics in non-psittacine species. This is particularly true given that the vast majority of pa- tients are anything but healthy and are less tolerant of the physiologic compromises induced by most in- jectable and other inhalant anesthetics. The basic principles of risk assessment and patient support used for mammalian anesthesia are also applicable to the avian patient. Ability to assess the condition of avian patients has improved, as has the ability to provide physiologic support during the an- esthetic episode. However, an isoflurane anesthetic unit de- signed for field use will fit into a small tool box (10" Anesthetic Agents x 12" x 20"); the only other necessary equipment is an oxygen source (Figure 39. They can be titrated to effect, have a more consistent therapeutic The ideal avian anesthetic agent is one that creates index and provide for rapid induction and smooth, minimal stress in administration, has a high thera- rapid recoveries. Additionally, the anesthetic episode peutic index, provides for rapid induction and recov- can be maintained for variable durations as dictated ery, induces minimal physiologic changes, provides by the procedure and, particularly with isoflurane, adequate restraint for the desired procedure and can effects can be instantly reversed. Contraindications for anesthetizing an avian patient should include severe Physiologic Effects of Inhalant Anesthesia obesity, fatty liver, liver or kidney failure, dehydra- tion, shock, anemia, dyspnea and fluid in the crop. In administering avian inhalant anesthetics, there Unfortunately, patients presented with many of are several important differences between the mam- these problems are those that require anesthesia for malian and avian respiratory system that should be proper resolution of the case. The paramount difference is that the agent must be based on the patient’s status and the avian lung does not have alveoli. Instead, the air working conditions that the clinician faces (eg, field capillaries function as the anatomic location of gas vs. The recent work with reversal agents may make the use total lung capacity of avian species is much less than of injectables more appealing to some avian practitio- that of an equivalent-sized mammal; however, due to the air sac system, the total respiratory volume is substantially greater. There is also a high gas ex- change surface-to-volume ratio that accounts for more efficient gas exchange. This efficiency accounts for the rapid equilibration of inspired components with arterial blood and for the rapid induction, rapid changes in depth of anesthesia and speed of recovery when inhalant anesthetics are used in birds. Recov- ery from isoflurane is primarily a function of the excretion of the gas by the lungs. Full recovery with agents such as methoxyflurane that are highly meta- bolized depends on the biotransformation of the agent by the liver. Because of their unique respiratory anatomy, nents of the system are shown separated and b) connected to form intubation and the use of gentle intermittent positive a functional circuit (courtesy of Exotic Animal Medical Products). However, the quantity of gas dissolved in 15 mm H2O) is strongly recommended in anesthe- the blood also prolongs the time required to lighten a tized patients. Methoxyflurane is known to induce major hepatic and renal dysfunction in Isoflurane chronically exposed hospital personnel, and scaveng- Isoflurane is rapidly replacing halothane and ing systems should be used to remove waste gas from methoxyflurane as the gas anesthetic of choice for the hospital setting. This surge in popularity is volatility, techniques have been described for admin- based on isoflurane’s rapid induction time, rapid and istering the gas in open anesthetic systems. This is smooth recoveries, rapid change in anesthetic level, an extremely dangerous method of providing anes- high margin of safety for both the patient and hospi- thesia in birds, and if an adequate oxygen supply is tal staff, reduced arrhythmogenic properties, re- not assured, it will result in rapid death of the pa- duced cardiovascular depression and reduced respi- tient. The drug can also be safely used to obtain diagnostic information from high-risk and Halothane critically ill birds. Recovery from even long surgical Halothane is a relatively nonirritating gas that re- procedures requires only minutes.

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Fi- brosarcomas are the most frequently encountered sarcomas of birds (see Color 25) 100 mg minomycin for sale. Cells from fibrosar- Cytology of Commonly comas are abnormal-appearing fibroblasts minomycin 100 mg sale, which are spindle-shaped cells that typically exfoliate as Sampled Fluids and Tissues single cells. Abnormal fibroblasts show increased cel- lular size and N:C ratios, nuclear and cellular pleo- morphism and exfoliation when compared with nor- mal fibrous tissue. Other mesenchymal cell Abdominal Fluids neoplasms such as chondromas, chondrosarcomas and osteogenic sarcomas may produce a heavy eosi- Birds presented with abdominal distention may have nophilic background material (chondroid or osteoid) an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the perito- that can be seen on the microscope sample. Cytologic evaluation of this fluid is often A common discrete or round cell neoplasm of birds is the main technique for establishing a presumptive or lymphoid neoplasia (see Color 25). Cellular features of malignant lym- Abdominal effusions can be classified based upon phocytic tissue include a marked increase in the cellularity, types of cells present, protein content, number of lymphoblasts, nuclear and cellular pleo- specific gravity and gross appearance. Abdominal morphism, increase in cytoplasmic basophilia and fluids are classified as transudates, modified tran- mitotic figures, and abnormal or multiple nucleoli. Transudative effu- phagocytosis, one cannot differentiate hemorrhage sions do not clot. These poorly cellular fluids contain from peripheral blood contamination of the sample. Transudates occur as a result of oncotic pres- likely contaminated with peripheral blood during the sure changes or other circulatory disturbances. Thrombocytes disappear rap- same causes for abdominal transudative effusions in idly in hemorrhagic effusions. These include cytosis is made by the detection of macrophages that hepatic cirrhosis, cardiac insufficiency and hypopro- have phagocytized erythrocytes (suggestive of recent teinemia. Hemosiderin appears as diamond-shaped, cytes predominate in this type of effusion with occa- golden crystals within the macrophage cytoplasm. Reactive Malignant effusions have features of either exuda- mesothelial cells tend to be round or oval with in- tive or hemorrhagic effusions, but contain cells com- creased cytoplasmic basophilia (Color 10. The nuclei have coarse chromatin and promi- result of blockage of blood or lymphatic vessels. Multinucleation, cytoplasmic vacuola- adenocarcinomas of the ovary of older female birds tion and mitotic activity are often associated with are a common cause of malignant effusions. Proliferation of mesothe- effusions can resemble hemorrhagic or exudative ef- lial cells results in the exfoliation of mesothelial cell fusions that contain epithelial cells with features of aggregates that appear as cellular sheets, balls or malignant neoplasia. Care should be taken not to aggregates of balls or rosettes and have cytoplasmic mistake these cells for malignant neoplasia. Transudative and modified transudative the abdomen of birds when urinary fluids leak into effusions are commonly found in the abdominal cav- the abdominal cavity. The cytology of the acute lesion ity of mynah birds suffering from hemochromatosis. These crystals Exudative effusions are characterized by high cellu- are the same ones found in the urate portion of the larity (total cell counts usually greater than 5000 bird’s droppings. The milky the cells found in exudative effusions are inflamma- appearance of this type of abdominal effusion resem- tory cells (Color 10. If demonstrate primarily a heterophilic inflammatory the bird survives this condition long enough, inflam- response; however, macrophages quickly move into matory cells will migrate into the fluid. Lymphocytes and Cytology of the Alimentary Tract plasma cells are often seen in long-standing exuda- tive effusions. Exudative effusions vary in color and The oral cavity, esophagus, ingluvies (crop) and clo- turbidity. They are frequently viscous, have a foul aca are often sampled for cytologic examination. Abdominal lesions often associ- sions in the oral cavity may have different etiologies ated with exudative effusions include septic peritoni- but similar gross appearance. Therefore, sampling of tis, egg-related peritonitis and abdominal malignan- oral lesions for cytologic examination is a quick and cies. An eosinophilic axostyle can often be seen as a sions include septic stomatitis, candidiasis, tricho- straight line running from the nucleus to the opposite moniasis and squamous cell hyperplasia. Eosinophilic flagella at the nuclear cytology of the oral cavity shows occasional end and an undulating membrane on one side of the squamous epithelial cells, varying amounts of back- cell are usually present. Because trichomonas proto- ground debris and extracellular bacteria represented zoa are not considered part of the normal flora and by a variety of morphologic types (Color 10. Bact- fauna of the alimentary tract of birds, an inflamma- eria associated with the surface of squamous epithel- tory response is usually found associated with tricho- ial cells are considered part of the normal flora. Much debris and extracellular bac- Alysiella filiformis, a gram-negative bacteria com- teria are usually present. The gross appearance of mon to the upper alimentary tract of birds, occurs as trichomoniasis can vary from ulcerations to the accu- small coccobacilli in pairs forming ribbon-like chains, mulation of large amounts of necrotic debris, depend- and is often associated with squamous epithelial cells6 ing on the host (species)-parasite relationship. The gross appearance of lesions caused by squamous Smears made from a bacterial abscess reveal either hyperplasia and metaplasia from hypovitaminosis A a heterophilic or mixed-cell inflammation with bact- can resemble lesions caused by bacteria, yeast and erial phagocytosis (Color 10.

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