By S. Rasarus. West Virginia University.
The simplicity of acquiring and publishing online information raises serious questions about users’ ability to discern (credibility) and produce (responsibility) quality online information order 1 mg kytril with visa. This study exam- ines two sources of credibility buy 2mg kytril mastercard, namely the origin of the information and the way people express authority in their posts, which legitimize the participant in the role of respondent. Following the study of this area, the dimension of epistemic modality (involving the writer in a marked commitment to the truth of the proposition), the evidentiary validity and in particular the degree of certainty, are analysed. Chafe (1986) identifies four areas within the evidential system: the reliability of information, the probability of its truth, the modes of knowledge, and the source, thus including epistemic modals as markers of judgments. The degree to which the speaker has a commitment to the validity of the information as well as inferential or personal experiences classify different epistemological stance (Mushin 2001). These studies were among those which strongly contributed to the analysis of evidential and epistemic modal qualification, which foreground speaker’s assessments and commitment to the truth of the utterance expressed. The expression of authorial stance (the ways in which an author or speaker overtly expresses attitudes, feelings, judgements, or Credibility and Responsibility in User-generated Health Posts 199 commitment, according to Biber/Finegan 1993) is studied on the basis of an analysis of pronominal self-reference items, adjectives and grading adverbs. Finally, a small-scale survey of people in Italy aged 18-33, examining young adults’ beliefs about the credibility of information available on Italian health forums and the reason why they choose to evaluate information as credible is presented. The survey involves 121 participants in an academic course, who have been considered to be representative of young adults between the ages of 18 and 33 years. Assessing credibility The aspect of knowledge and information diffusion offered by online health pages is of paramount importance to individuals who want to find possible reasons and solutions for their health issues. By reading patients’ complaints about similar health issues, users gain reassurance and information that would otherwise be neglected without a face-to-face medical encounter. It follows that users must learn to critically analyse and distinguish reliable information from chitchat, superstitions and home made diagnoses and remedies. On participatory websites such as blogs, forums, or wikis, one increasingly finds information that has been communicated by laypersons rather than experts or professional journalists. Winter and Krämer (2012) investigate several factors that influ- ence readers’ selection of user-generated content on participatory websites, adapting research on persuasion. A two-sided summary, which indicates that both positions on a controversial issue are being considered, may appear more attractive to readers who are motivated to reach an informed position. Construction and legitimization of roles in online health communities In d/p sites’ framework, the interaction of net users (willing to show and tell their health issues) and doctors (with their sympathetic authority), as well as the silent readers (those who read the posts without actually participating in the discussion) have a relationship in which net users contribute to the formation of medical knowledge and forge a modern sense of appropriation of health information and of doctor/patient exchange. In laymen-to-laymen forums, knowledge communication is practiced in communities in which knowledge and experience are shared to create new knowledge (Wenger 1999). Such digital environments allow people to play the roles of both information source and receiver, as they give, share and critique the content of forum posts. This game has profound implications for how people construct and evaluate credibility, in particular when it comes to their limited ability to discern quality information due to a stressed emotional state, which is often the background to an online health fact search. According to Fage-Butler and Nisbeth Jensen (2014), in online health forums p-p communication has striking similarities with aspects of d-p Credibility and Responsibility in User-generated Health Posts 201 communication, as it includes the sharing of biomedical information on diagnosis, suggesting treatment action and giving treatment advice. See for example: (1) 1st User: [asks for some details] 2nd User: […] strong vasoconstrictors and not to anything that regulates neu- ronal excitability or neurotransmitters, they think nortriptyline worked only because serotonin is a vasoconstrictor […]; Moderator: Hi, Christine, and welcome! In addition, people also take up position towards their utterances and in extreme case they even question doctors’ treatments: (3) Macca, 100 mg a day was your starting dose? Not to play doc- tor, but the usual starting dose is 25 mg, to be increased in 25 mg increments every 1-2 weeks or even longer depending on patient tolerance. However, the study also illustrates that respondents use disclaimers which are expressed when acknowledging lay status and which, in a way, downgrade their position to semi-experts. However, if authority implies expertise and experience, the forum respondents may increase their credibility, since “patient-patient communication clearly com- 202 Marianna Lya Zummo prises aspects that cannot be found in traditional doctor-patient com- munication, as it incorporates experiential knowledge, empathetic support drawn from common experience and ‘we-ness’ or group solidarity” (Fage-Butler/Nisbeth Jensen 2013: 35). Responsibility in the communication of information The legitimization of the role of the writer, when assessing credibility in a forum post, comes from their perceived expertise, which means the way they express certainty (and commitment) in their posts. Assuming that the use of the first person pronoun expresses credibility (as a role marker of authorial presence and investment to personally get behind the statements) and helps the writer to establish commitment to their words, the frequency and role of first person pronouns I and we in their various forms (subject, object and possessive) are studied as role markers and authorial presence, together with adjectives and grading adverbs. Writer visibility in exchanges is mostly concerned with the function of stating sympathy whereas func- tions related to the expression of commitment toward information have very low percentage values. The categorisation of discourse Credibility and Responsibility in User-generated Health Posts 203 functions of personal pronouns in healthcare forum exchanges shows an increasing loss of authority expressed by the authorial presence. In other words, it seems that comment users adopt their own visibility for the purpose of sharing personal stories and show sympathy without using themselves as references to influence or persuade their readers. It could be hypothesized that the writers of the posts choose not to adopt authorial stances because they are conscious of a lack of expertise and of a reluctance to commit themselves explicitly to their claims. On the other hand, it is true that elaborating a sentence without explicitly expressing the subject, increases the perception of the neutral objective truth of the utterance (Gotti 2011). Results suggest that users know the limitations of their own medical knowledge and may perceive the importance of their suggestions when offering help, limiting the expression of authorship and certainty, as in these comments: (4) As for the meds and their side effects you’re experiencing, perhaps you might talk to your doctor about ramping the dose up a bit more slowly.
Not everyone can or should care for themselves and many might be unable to care for others kytril 2mg amex. Health care resources will be needed but they should be just that—resources available to those who need them purchase kytril 2 mg with visa. If medicine is m easured only by its clinical effectiveness, that is, whether the processes used by physicians have anything to do with the outcome to the patient, much of what is done now may be discarded. Al though much should be discarded while the house is being cleaned and the rum m age sale held, care m ust be taken not to throw out too much. In an age of alienation and isola tion, many need someone to turn to for care and for help. Home care may com pare favorably with hospital care, even for some acute conditions, precisely because caring is max imized in the home. But to retain caring in the medicine of the future does not require us to m ortgage ourselves today. In addition, health science students could be selected for their capacity to care and heal, rather than for their quantitative skills, dexterity, and Four Conditions of Health 185 efficiency. T he most im portant factor in health is the individual who desires to be healthy. But despite al most palpable dependency there are some whose will to be healthy overcomes both their pathology and the attem pts to heal them. T heodore Roszak refers to this kind of knowledge as “that [which] must come through the body and be accepted on the body’s own terms as a lesson not to be learned elsewhere or otherwise: an organic message, organically integrated. Almost as a diversion, I m onitored the battle within me; I tried to sense and get in touch with what my body was doing to deal with the imbalance. I took some pills and drank some herbal tea proffered to me by a sympathetic native. But I knew the imbalance would re main and would take weeks to redress, even though the most severe symptoms would disappear in a few days. Since that time I have paid m ore attention to the many signals I get from my body. Pregnant women often change their diets because their bodies signal for different nutrients. Transconti nental and intercontinental travelers are out of phase with their norm al environm ents on arrival. Gay G aer Luce in Body Time8 reviews the research that has been done on the sensitivity o f the body to tim e— how m ood, perform ance, activ ity, and tactility all fluctuate in an elaborate dance with time: Time is the most intimate and pervasive aspect of our lives, yet the language of our self-expectations is static. We are touched by inner cycles of sleepiness and hunger, yet our self-image is as fixed as a photograph. We aspire to unde- viating performance at work, and measure our state of health against some static norm. T h e hum an organism exists in a pulsating web o f interactions with other anim ate life, with terrestrial and solar waves and radiations, and with m an-m ade m achines and equipm ent. T he hum an anim al throbs at its own rates, and projects, as well as receives, im pulses. T he health of an individual depends on the calibration o f external im pulses and signals with internal rhythm s and messages. In all developed countries male death rates are substan tially higher than those o f females o f com parable ages. At all ages, the unm arried have considerably higher death rates than the m arried. A nd in Nevada, infant m ortality is 40 percent higher than in Utah and contiguous states. Diet, nutrition, exercise, rest, and calm all make a difference, as do doctors, but the healthy individual must make choices and must be inform ed in order to do so. T here is a need for inform ation—what to do about one signal or another, when to ask for help, what kind of food to eat to ensure a sufficient am ount o f energy, and so on. But of equal im por tance is experiential knowledge—body consciousness—the capacity to read the topography of feelings and sensations. T he second takes nothing less than the assumption by the individual o f the responsibility for health, and concomitantly an escape from a dependency on others. He walks hom e from work puffing on his pipe, pauses to watch a construction project, arrives at home, rests, and eats his lamb chops for dinner and retires soon thereafter. Although we know little about health, what we do know is easy to execute and is largely dependent on the individual. They include exer cise, nutrition, and food contaminants, clear air and water, noise levels, dirt, waste material, stress and congestion, light and sound, housing, rest, choices and opportunities, recre 188 What Then Is Health? In each case there is some evidence o f a relationship to health; and in some cases m ore than others. But with rare exceptions we have no inform ation about their relative im portance.
Conclusion: No specifc biochemi- tained results for patients in each group are differed in subsequent cal markers regarding the duration of menopause were found kytril 2mg without a prescription. Hip (femoral head) order kytril 1 mg on line, Knee (femoral condyle), Tibia can be considered as one of the factors infuencing on behavior of and Metatarsal bone are the affected sites. Khachnaoui1 consultation is especially paralysis of the extensors of the fngers 1Sahloul Hospital, Rehabilitation, Sousse, Tunisia and thumb ulnar extensor carpi. Material and Methods: A 35 year old patient, who is a farmer, without any particular medical history Introduction/Background: Achondroplasia is the most common consulted for a weakness in his left hand to progressive appearance inherited bone dysplasia. Electromyographic exami- We report the case of a young woman with achondroplasia which nation objectifed conduction block on the forearm posterior interos- presented paraplegia by spinal stenosis. Histological examination confrmed the diagnosis of lipoma from low back pain radiating to both legs and not systematized. Results: The evolution after 6 months of rehabilitation She had diffculty in micturition with leaks evolving for several was marked by improvement of symptoms and pain. The evolution is marked by a worsening of the symptoms The electromyographic examination is still disrupted. It visualizes and limiting the walking perimeter with diffculties increasingly a motor impairment with conduction block and neurogenic path. We report the case of a patient with a syndrome of posterior cid paraplegia complicating spinal stenosis, especially at L2-L3 interosseous nerve secondary to compression by a paraostéal lipo- level. The patient received a decompression surgery by L2-L3-L4 ma, surgical excision with radial neurolysis followed by rehabilita- laminectomy. Neurologically, the patient presents paraparesis with tive care adapted enabled good functional recovery after 6 months. Cu- taneo abdominal refexes are present and musculoskeletal refexes are abolished in the lower limbs. However, at the urinary level, it has conducted to North Staffordshire Rehabilitation Centre, Physical Rehabilitation 2 bladder drainage by intermittent self-catheterization. Conclusion: Medicine, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; North Staffordshire The main vertebral deformities in achondroplastic patient are the Rehabilitation Centre, Physcial Rehabilitation Medicine, Stoke-on- magnum foramen narrows and spinal stenosis. If symptomatic, pa- Trent, United Kingdom tient will present with neurological signs of myelopathy or equina Introduction/Background: Transient bone barrow oedema is a rare, cauda syndrome, as a function of the compression seat. The aim of this study is to ences of neurological signs indicate a decompression surgery. Material and 315 Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study from the data collected through our bespoke database. Blood parameters including 1Boo-Ali hospital -Islamic Azad university of Medical Sciences infammatory markers were normal. Sayilir 1Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University- Faculty of Medicine, Physical disease that have great effect on quality of life. Material and Methods: genital anomaly characterized by variable degree of defciency In this quasi-experimental clinical trial, postmenopausal women en- along the radial (or preaxial) side of the limb. In this report, we pre- tered the study and randomized into case and control group. Case group also performed back ex- 42-year-old man with right radial bone dysgenesia applied to our tensor strengthening exercises at home. Concerning radial bone dysgenesia, he has 6 months after entering the study in both case and control groups any rehabilitation programs or surgical treatments. The medical history was otherwise non- except for role emotional as a subscale of mental health. On physical examination, right elbow was found to be trol group-, only some physical health dimensions including bodily fxed in extended and right hand fxed in fexion position. He had pain, role physical and vitality and mental health status as a mental minimal motor functions of fngers. Conclusion: In conclusion, performing as taking objects, holding or clutching at the right hand. Right elbow back exercises had major impact on improving physical and most and wrist joint showed severe degenerations. He was recommended of the mental aspects of quality of life in patients with osteoporosis for a rehabilitation program including; improving hand functions, and could be considered in routine management in these patients. Material and Methods: Forty-fve women with postmenopausal osteoporosis who were started medical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Ankara, Turkey treatment were prospectively included. Medications included alen- Introduction/Background: Avascular necrosis is the death of bone dronate, zoledronic acid, risedronate or ibandronic acid along with tissue due to a lack of blood supply. Also called osteonecrosis, a low or high dose of calcium plus vitamin D supplements. Patient was diagnosed with malign melanoma vitamin-D supplementation tended to have a greater improvement on right sacral region. Conclusion: Cognitive functions of women with these combination therapy patient experienced right hip pain and postmenopausal osteoporosis remained unaltered, whereas bone limitations. Higher doses of calcium vitamin d supplements were likely treated with 30 session hyperbaric oxygen treatment which did not to have better cognitive effects compared to lower doses.
The biological processes of male-mediated teratogenicity have also been examined through clinical studies on animals and studies of the eVect of toxic exposures directly on sperm order kytril 2mg line. In a study of more than 14 000 birth records in San Francisco cheap 2 mg kytril with amex, researchers found associations between paternal smoking and various birth defects, including cleft lip, cleft palate and hydrocephalus (Savitz, Schwingle and Keels, 1991). SigniWcant associations have also been found between paternal smoking and brain cancer in children, and between paternal smoking and low birth weight – a diVerence of up to 238 grams (c. In addition, cotinine, a meta- bolite of nicotine, has been found in seminal Xuid, although researchers are unsure what eVect this might have on fetal health (Davis et al. Bruce Ames of the University of California, Berkeley, has suggested that the link between smoking and birth defects could be due to smokers’ low levels of vitamin C. Case reports suggest an association between paternal drinking and ‘malformations and cognitive deWciencies’ in the children of alcoholic men (Little and Sing, 1987; Colie, 1993: p. Ricardo Yazigi, Randall Odem and Kenneth Polakoski discovered that cocaine could bind to sperm and thereby be transmitted to the egg during fertilization. Reports of cocaine ‘piggybacking’ on sperm have led to controversy in the scientiWc community over whether this phenomenon could contribute to birth defects (Brachen et al. In animal studies, opiates (such as morphine and methadone) administered to fathers, but not to mothers, have produced birth defects and behavioural abnormalities in the Wrst and second generations of the father’s oVspring (Friedler and Wheeling 1979; Friedler, 1985). Press coverage of male-mediated harm The scientiWc evidence on male-mediated risks has generated quite diVerent stories in popular magazines and newspapers than it has for women. Whilst images of crack babies and irresponsible mothers prevail in stories about maternal exposures to drugs, visual images in popular science magazines and news stories about male reproduction place sperm in the centre of focus as the tiniest victims of toxicity. Even in newspaper stories that address the connection between paternal exposures and fetal health, certain patterns of reporting emerge that function to reduce male culpability for fetal harm. In all of the stories that draw connections between paternal exposures and fetal harm, maternal exposure was also mentioned as a possible source of harm. Evidence of male-mediated risks are often prefaced with statements such as, ‘While doctors are well aware of the eVects that maternal smoking, drinking and exposure to certain drugs can have on the fetus, far less is known about the father’s role in producing healthy oVspring’ (Merewood, 1992: p. News and World Report began an article on paternal–fetal harm in these terms, ‘It is common wisdom that mothers-to-be should steer clear of toxic chemicals that could cause birth defects. Between fathers and fetuses 125 Fourth, paternal exposures to illegal drugs are always contextualized by reference to ‘involuntary’ environmental and workplace exposures, thereby reducing men’s culpability for harm. After reporting that children of fathers who smoke have been found to be at increased risk for leukaemia and lymphoma, the article ends with the recom- mendation of a physician that men who smoke ‘either modify their diets to include fruits and vegetables or take a vitamin C supplement each day’. While sperm ‘delivers’, ‘transports’ or ‘carries’ the drug to the egg in such stories, it never ‘assaults’ the fetus, as stories on drug use and women imply. When the sperm is not presented as itself a victim, it acts as a shield for men – deXecting or capturing the blame that might otherwise be placed on the father. One news story entitled ‘Sperm Under Siege’, presented an image of sperm at the centre of a target, menaced by bottles of alcohol and chemicals (Merewood, 1991). Another presented a cartoon image of a man and his sperm huddled under an umbrella whilst packets of cigarettes, martini glasses and canisters of toxins rained down upon them (Black and Moore, 1992). Yet of the 853 column inches dedicated to pregnancy, alcohol and drug abuse by the New York Times in one two-year period, almost 200 column inches were taken up by photographic images of crack babies and their drug-addicted mothers (Schroedel and Peretz, 1993). The biological mechanism of paternal–fetal harm have been made invisible not by science itself, but by the lens through which scientiWc evidence is perceived. As Evelyn Fox Keller has observed, un- articulated gender assumptions aVect not only the questions and methodolo- gies of scientiWc research but also ‘what counts as an acceptable answer or a satisfying explanation’ (Keller, 1992: p. For this reason, scientists who have engaged in research on paternal–fetal hazards have met with scepticism from colleagues, editors and newspaper reporters alike. Daniels Paternal effects and ‘political correctness’ Evidence of paternal–fetal harm has generated, at best, virtual silence from public health authorities and the courts, or, at worst, active hostility. An editorial in Reproductive Toxicology (Scialli, 1993) argued that the impulse to link paternal exposures with fetal eVects is a result not of science but of ‘political correctness’, ‘There has been no quarrel that testicular toxicants can produce fertility impairment, but paternally mediated eVects on conceived pregnancies is [sic]adiVerent matter altogether’. The article concedes that ‘several’ studies on paternally mediated eVects have been ‘nicely performed and reported’, but taken as a whole they are ‘diYcult to interpret’ (Scialli, 1993: p. Of those who defend the evidence for paternal/fetal links, the editorial (Scialli, 1993) concludes: The people who make these accusations appear to believe that paternally mediated eVects must occur in humans, for the sake of fairness. It is argued that because father and mother make equal genetic contributions to the conceptus, they must have equal opportunity to transmit toxic eVects. Yet except for those rare and tragic cases where women are exposed to substances such as thalidomide which cause severe, visible deformities, the question of causality remains profoundly complicated for both women and men. The fact that even the chronic abuse of drugs and alcohol by men has been dismissed, whilst so much attention has focused on even the occasional use of drugs and alcohol by pregnant women, points to the clear ways in which gendered constructions shape both the science and policy of risk. Even in cases where men are exposed to known reproductive hazards, scientists have been remarkably reluctant to recommend the most simple restrictions on men. At the Wrst major medical meeting on male-mediated developmental toxins at the University of Pittsburgh in 1992, men were given ‘conXicting advice’ about whether to postpone procreation during cancer treatment (or ‘bank’ sperm before treat- ment). The journal Human Reproduction published a recommendation Between fathers and fetuses 127 stating that sperm saved in the early stages of chemotherapy was safe ‘based on the belief that since the drugs did not kill sperm.
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