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Recent weight changes will pro- from low solute presentation caused by avid proxi- vide additional clues order lamictal 25mg online, with the expectation of weight mal reabsorption due to preoperative volume deficits loss with inadequate or delayed replacement of ongo- or unreplaced intraoperative fluid losses discount lamictal 100mg on line. Generally, since the continued loss of free water is likely to lead to this condition is associated with volume depletion and a further increase in serum sodium. With cerebral salt wasting, there from increased salt loading (salt poisoning) results 158 K. Volume depletion, circulatory insufficiency, or marked ongoing water and sodium losses as in inflam- matory bowel disease, fistulae, or prolonged gastric 10. Additional concentrations are low initially and may fall after fluid helpful investigations include serum electrolytes, including serum potassium and calcium to exclude the administration. When this process occurs in the renal tubules, it Rather than yielding an absolute value, renal physiologi- can result in acute kidney injury due to tubular necrosis. Additionally, acute kidney injury may occur secondary to uricosuria and ensuing uric acid nephropathy. The risk of acute kidney injury in tumor lysis syndrome increases when there is preexisting kidney dysfunction or intravascular volume depletion. N Eng J Med 357:797–805 assessment of electrolytes, phosphorus, uric acid, cal- 2. Crit Care Med 35 phate or uric acid crystals may also be visualized in (Suppl):S198–S205 the urine. N Eng J Med 304:373–380 In the face of oliguria with tumor lysis, renal ultrasound 6. Vet Clin N Am Food the assessment of any derangement in fluid or electrolyte Anim Pract 15:447–471 status and in differentiating between expected vs. Pediatr Nephrol 7:268–272 Chapter 10 Tools for the Diagnosis of Renal Disease 161 15. Arch Dis Child 51:875–878 patients after cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective cohort 17. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:1597–1605 assessment of extracellular fluid volume in hyponatremia. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:A0828 Comparison of three different methods of evaluation of meta- 38. Rastegar A (2007) Use of the delta anion gap/delta bicarbo- and tubular disorders. Pediatr Nephrol 9:364–374 ney foundation kidney disease outcomes quality initiative 49. J children and adolescents: evaluation, and classification, Pediatr 123:393–397 and stratification. N hospital induced hyponatremia in children: a physiologic Eng J Med 340:1177–118 approach. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 297–320 ride measurements in critically ill patients. Siggaard-Anderson O, Engel K (1960) A new acid–base nom- interpretation of urinalysis performed by a nephrologist ogram, an improved method for calculation of the relevant versus a hospital based clinical laboratory. Wang Y, Cui Z, Fan M (2007) Hospital acquired and com- acid–base nomogram revised. Scand Clin Lab Invest munity acquired acute renal failure in hospitalized Chinese: 14:598–604 the 10-year review. N Engl J Med 331:250–258 excess or buffer base (strong ion difference) as a measure 68. Treatment was initiated with intravenous not always have renal involvement of their infec- ampicillin and cefotaxime after septic workup was tions [39]. The urine and blood cultures grew Escherichia a hospital originate from the urogenital tract. The spinal fluid examination was unremarkable, half of them can be considered as primary sepsis and culture of the fluid showed no growth. A renal due to the combination of infection and obstruction ultrasound obtained on the day after admission, when within the upper or lower urinary tract, which is due the urine culture result was reported, showed a normal to congenital or acquired causes; however, the other left kidney and a duplicated collecting system on the half may be induced by any urologic intervention right with moderate to severe hydronephrosis. Review of the lit- Infant boys with intact foreskins have a higher risk of erature indicates that secondary bacteremia, or urosep- urosepsis and may not have specific anatomic find- sis, is uncommon, except in young febrile infants and ings. Fungal infections of the urinary tract are Patients with structural or functional obstruction at increasing in frequency [27], likely due to use of inva- any level of the urinary tract, such as calculi, neuro- sive devices that impair physical host defenses and use genic bladder, spinal cord injury, and other uropathies, of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that eliminate as well as those with biomaterials or foreign bodies commensal flora. Posterior urethral valves and in very-low-birth weight, premature infants, and immu- other congenital obstructions of the urethra are par- nocompromised children [23]. These Although retrograde ascending infection is probably anomalies are unique to male children.

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Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Journal Titles on the Internet Te general format for a reference to an entire Internet journal title cheap lamictal 25mg fast delivery, including punctuation: - for a title continuing to be published: - for a title that ceased publication: Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on the Internet If a journal is still being published buy lamictal 200 mg low price, as shown in the frst example, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal has ceased publication, as in 1580 Citing Medicine example two, separate the beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen surrounded by a space. See also Chapter 1C Entire Journal Titles for additional examples of the specifc parts of a citation. Increasingly journals are published directly for the Internet to enable hyperlinking, to include complex graphics, and to run multimedia such as flm clips and sound. Volume and issue information has changed the most with Internet journals, particularly those without print counterparts. Many publishers omit volume and issue numbers, substituting an article numbering scheme or simply using the date the item was placed on the Internet as an identifer. A journal title on the Internet is cited similar to journals in print, but with these major exceptions: • Use the word "Internet" in square brackets as the Type of Medium afer the journal title. Many journal titles with both print and Internet versions do not carry the same exact content. If you viewed a journal title on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. However, it may be useful to begin a citation to an Internet journal by frst locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print publication, then add the Internet-specifc items. When citing a journal, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version. To cite all volumes for an Internet journal that changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. Journals that have migrated to the Internet from other formats or that maintain both print and online versions may not change titles, but may only have recent volumes available online. When citing the Internet version, give volume and date information for only those that are online accessible. For example: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Ofcial Journal of the National Kidney Foundation [Internet]. Do not confuse the publisher with the organization that maintains the Web site for the publisher. Publisher information is required in a citation; distributor information may be included as a note if desired. If a journal on the Internet does not have a formal title page or table of contents, look to the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser) to locate citation information. Note that the rules for creating references to journal titles are not the same as the rules for cataloging them. Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles on the Internet. Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles on the Internet Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O) 1582 Citing Medicine Title for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Title • Enter a journal title in the original language • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the title • Follow the title with a colon and any subtitle that appears • Follow a non-English title with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets • End the journal title with a space Specific Rules for Title • Journal titles not in English • Journals appearing in more than one language • Journals appearing in diferent editions Box 64. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Example: Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Internet journal title continuing to be published under another name Edition for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Edition • Indicate the edition/version being cited afer the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the edition statement • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (British Edition) • End the edition statement with a space Specific Rules for Edition • Non-English words for editions Box 67. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Dutch Uitgave Uitg Editie Ed Finnish Julkaisu Julk French Edition Ed German Ausgabe Ausg Greek Ekdosis Ekd Italian Edizione Ed Norwegian Publikasjon Pub Portuguese Edicao Ed Russian Izdanie Izd Spanish Edicion Ed Swedish Upplaga n. Jones • Follow the name with a comma and the word "editor" • End editor information with a period Specific Rules for Editor • Names not in English Box 68. Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Some journals on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the place of publication. Internet journal title with geographic qualifer added to place of publication for clarity 14. Internet journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Publisher for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Publisher • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion.

Effect of cigarette smoking on levels of seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: a prospective study buy cheap lamictal 50 mg on-line. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2010 Jan–Mar; 53(1): 35–40 order 50mg lamictal with mastercard. Interplay between endocannabinoids, steroids and cytokines in the control of human reproduction. Phospholipid composition of human sperm and seminal plasma in relation to sperm fertility. Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma: a comparison between fertile and infertile men. Role of antioxidants in treatment of male infertility: an overview of the literature. Reactive oxygen species in semen of infertile patients: levels of superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities in seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Relationship between oxidative stress, semen characteristics, and clinical diagnosis in men undergoing infertility investigation. Ascorbic acid in human seminal plasma: determination and its relationship to sperm quality Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 2009 Sep; 45(2): 144–149. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991; 88: 11003–11006. Analysis of the relationship between defective sperm function and the generation of reactive oxygen species in cases of oligozoospermia. The effect of antioxidant treatment on human spermatozoa and fertilization rate in an in vitro fertilization program. Factors contributing to gender differences in serum retinol and alpha-tocopherol in infertile couples. Spermatogenesis and blood-testis barrier in rats after long-term vitamin A deprivation. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Zinc deficiency in men with Crohn’s disease may contribute to poor sperm function and male infertility. Comparison of zinc concentration in blood and seminal plasma and various sperm parameters between fertile and infertile men. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and sperm count. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007; 47: 216–221. Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution. Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. Chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid against cyclophosphamide- induced changes in the rat sperm. Antioxidant treatment with carnitines is effective in infertile patients with prostatovesiculoepididymitis and elevated seminal leukocyte concentrations after treatment with nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory compounds. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L- acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: an open, uncontrolled pilot study. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract. Ginsenoside R(e) increases fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile human sperm motility by induction of nitric oxide synthase. Ginsenoside Re promotes human sperm capacitation through nitric oxide-dependent pathway. Reactivation of the secretion from the prostatic gland in cases of reduced fertility: biological study of seminal fluid modifications. The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction—an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men.

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Fowl cholera Eastern and western encephalitis Metroliasthes lucida Actinobacillus salpingitidis Avian serositis Fimbriaria fasciolaris Actinobacillosis Louping-ill Nematodes (in digestive tract) Haemophilus spp buy 100 mg lamictal with visa. Coronaviridae Haemophilus infection Francisella tularensis Trichostrongylus tenuis Coronaviral enteritis of turkeys Heterakis spp order lamictal 200 mg without a prescription. Infectious bronchitis Gangylonema ingluvicola Rhabdoviridae Mycoplasma (see Chapter 38) Cheilospirura spp. Avian influenza, fowl plague Nematodes (in other locations) Rickettsia (see Chapter 38) Retroviridae Aproctella stoddardi Coxiella burnetii Leukosis Singhfilaria hayesi Query (Q) fever Reticuloendotheliosis Acanthocephalans Aegyptianella pullorum Lymphoproliferative disease of turkeys Mediorhynchus papillosus Aegyptianellosis Picornaviridae Arthropods Avian encephalomyelitis External parasites like lice, fleas, flies, Turkey viral hepatitis Mycoses (see Chapter 35) mosquitoes, midges, and ticks occur in Infectious nephritis Aspergillus spp. Mites occur Aspergillosis above all in intensively reared gallina- ceous birds, predacious bugs in some Bacteria (see Chapter 33) Candida albicans gallinaceous birds. Favus Mycobacterium avium Tuberculosis Erysipelothrix rusiopathiae Mycotoxicoses (see Chapter 37) Erysipelas Toxins of Aspergillus spp. Characteristic necropsy findings include weight loss, pale and ede- matous skeletal muscles, petechial hemorrhage in Cocks with spurs can injure handlers, especially the muscles and mild subcutaneous edema. Frac- when they become increasingly aggressive during tures in the diaphysis of the humerus, radius, ulna, the mating season. The beak can also serve as a femur and tibiotarsus with massive callus formation weapon. Although serious injuries are rare, the face and lateral twisting of the tibia may also occur. Feed- and the eyes of handlers should always be protected ing the chicks natural food stuffs will prevent vita- from a bird’s beak, even in small species. Integument Concerns Catching gallinaceous birds in an aviary can be done Amputation of the comb or the wattles may be indi- gently with a hooked, long stick. The birds should cated following extensive injury, infection or frost- never be restrained by the feathers alone. Adequate hemostasis is necessary to prevent body must be secured to prevent a shock molt. Occasional trimming of the kerati- molt is most common in tail feathers, but other feath- nous tip of the bill is necessary if the horny layer ers can be involved. Birds can be nearly “bald” after grows too fast, or is insufficient abrasive materials several failed restraint attempts. The excessive the base of the wing is fixed with one hand and the horn is pared off prudently with a sharp knife with- legs are controlled with the other hand (see Chapter out cutting into the viable parts of the bill. If assistance is not available, a large bird can be re- Cannibalism may occur in some Galliformes and is strained by placing it under one arm and pressing it characterized by vent-picking, feather-pulling, toe- gently against one’s body. Overcrowding, calmed by placing a loose-fitting, lightweight cotton incorrect feeding, an inappropriate daylight cycle, sock over the head to reduce vision. Amputating the comb and wattles and “debeaking” 3,8,14,39 have been used to control cannibalism; however, Disease Considerations these control methods should be viewed as cruel and unacceptable procedures. These procedures are pain- ful, cause permanent loss of tissue, may heal improp- Gallinaceous birds are susceptible to a wide variety erly or become infected and cause a change in social of viral, bacterial, mycoplasmal, parasitic, chlamy- ranking. The bill is not only important for the uptake dial, rickettsial and fungal agents (Table 45. Infor- of food, but also has sensory functions, and is neces- mation on these diseases may be found in the appro- sary for preening. In most cases, cannibalism can be successfully prevented by cor- recting deficiencies in the birds’ environment; how- Nutritional Diseases ever, once feather picking is initiated, some birds Vitamin C deficiency does not occur in most birds; never stop. In these cases, affected birds should be however, it has been reported in Willow Ptarmigan separated from the remainder of the flock. Usually all but the out- weeks of life, and has to be augmented by the intake ermost two primaries and the innermost three secon- of vitamin C from natural food plants (eg, blueberries). The client had placed black shoe polish on the lesions, which is a commonly discussed lay treatment of poxvirus. Radiographs indicated gastroin- testinal impaction with cranial displacement of the heart (arrows) and intestinal tract (open arrow). With one wing trimmed, the bird is unbalanced and cannot gain speed during flight. Because the feathers will be replaced during the next molt, trimming must be repeated annually in adults. Other methods, like pinioning or cutting the short tendon of the extensor carpi radialis, make birds permanently unable to fly. Heterakis isolonche infections have been described in a number of free-ranging and captive Galliformes. This parasite causes typhlitis with clinical signs of infection including diarrhea, weight loss and depres- sion. The parasite invades the wall of the cecum and causes lymphocytic infiltration and granuloma for- mation. In pheasants, the nodules merge, leading to substantial thickening of the cecal wall. Hanssen I, et al: Vitamin C deficiency Melsungen, Neumann-Neudamm, Berlin, Verlag Paul Parey, 1992, pp mal Medicine.

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