By I. Tragak. Scripps College. 2018.
Deciency of vitamin A cheap prometrium 100 mg with amex, a fat-soluble vitamin buy discount prometrium 100mg on line, is a major cause of blindness in many areas of the world. Occasionally it can be seen in disorders of fat malabsorption, such as cystic brosis, cholestatic Pathophysiology liver disease and inammatory bowel disease. Thiamine is an essential factor for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system and the heart. It is also involved in glycolytic pathways, mediating carbohydrate Pathophysiology metabolism. Vitamin A is required for maintenance of mucosal sur- faces, the formation of epithelium and production of Clinical features mucus. Dry beriberi is an endemic form of polyneuritis re- Retinal function is dependent on retinol, a constituent sulting from a diet consisting of polished rice decient of the retinal pigment rhodopsin. Wet beriberi is the high output heart failure caused by thiamine deciency resulting in Management oedema. Supplementation with nicotinic acid and treatment of other coexisting deciencies. Erythrocyte transketolase activity and blood pyruvate Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deciency are increased. Denition Deciency of pyridoxine is rarely a primary disorder, but Management it does occur as a secondary disorder. The cardiac failure usually responds rapidly, but Aetiology neuropathies may only partially resolve if they are long- Important sources of Vitamin B6 are similar to those of standing. Deciency may occur with malabsorp- Niacin deciency (pellagra) tion such as coeliac disease, dietary lack in alcoholism and drug toxicity especially isoniazid. Denition Niacin (vitamin B3) has two principle forms: nicotinic Pathophysiology acid and nicotinamide. Deciency of niacin causes pel- Pyridoxine is important in the metabolism of amino lagra. In some rare metabolic disorders, pyridoxine deciency is as- Aetiology sociated with infantile convulsions and sideroblastic Niacin is found in plants, meat and sh. Deciency causes men- and Hartnup disease, an autosomal recessive congenital tal confusion, glossitis, dry skin lesions and peripheral disorder with reduced absorption of tryptophan from neuropathy. Management Pathophysiology Oral replacement; however, high doses may cause Nicotinic acid is involved in energy utilisation. Vitamin B12 deciency It is also used in maintaining skin, especially in sun- exposed areas. Vitamin C deciency Clinical features Pellagra is due to lack of nicotinic acid, it often occurs Denition as part of a more general nutritional deciency. Pellagra Vitamin C deciency causes scurvy, which was rst de- presents with dermatitis, diarrhoea and dementia. Genetic factors Occurs in the poor, pregnant or those on a peculiar may be involved in predisposing to the development of diet. Vitamin C brillogenesis and amyloidosis: (ascorbic acid) is found in citrus fruits, potatoes, green r Geneticmutationsresultinginproteinswithincreased vegetables and fortied fruit drinks. The precursor protein, the tissue distribution and the amount of amyloid deposited affect the clinical presen- Management tation. Deposition in the coronary arteries can lead Vitamin K deciency to ischaemic heart disease. This form of deposition is particularly seen many of which circulate as constituents of plasma. At least 21 different protein precursors of amyloid brils are now known (see Table 13. Investigations Besides systemic amyloid deposition, organ specic Where possible biopsy and histology is used to con- amyloid may occur in the skin or heart and most no- rm clinical suspicion. Familial amyloidosis Various Autosomal dominant inherited, including familial transthyretin-associated amyloidosis. Denition Management Theporphyriasaregeneticoracquireddecienciesinthe Therapy is aimed at the underlying cause where possi- activity of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Differing manifestations such as renal failure require Aetiology/pathophysiology support. Inthehereditaryamyloidoseswheretheprecur- Heme is synthesised from succinyl Co A and glycine (see sor protein is produced by the liver, liver transplantation Fig 13. Enzyme deciencies result in increases in metabolic ing folic acid as a co-factor. It presents in adult life with muscle cell proliferation, activation of clotting factors abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation, polyneu- and a pro-aggregatory effect on platelets. Acuteepisodes also be a pro-inammatory effect by upregulating neu- areprecipitatedbyalcoholanddrugs.
Can low testosterone levels cause Can prostate problems cause erectile dysfunction? Neither prostate cancer nor benign prostate disease Low testosterone levels can lead to problems with directly causes erectile problems prometrium 200 mg mastercard. Tere is however getting and keeping an erection 100mg prometrium mastercard, but it is not a a link between lower urinary tract symptoms common cause of erectile problems. Even then, replacement It is the treatment of prostate diseases that often causes with testosterone will not always help the erectile erectile dysfunction. Men with low interest in sex (low operation, where the prostate gland is completely libido) should have their testosterone measured, as removed because of cancer, there may be damage to testosterone treatment may improve their sexual the nerves that control erections. Other hormonal problems, such as high around the prostate have to be removed because the prolactin and thyroid disease may afect erectile cancer has spread and this causes erectile dysfunction. Other prostate cancer treatment, such as radiotherapy, Tere are often reports in the media that testosterone can also cause erectile dysfunction. Even if a physical problem is the Tere is a strong connection between thoughts and Depression is a common and often unrecognised major cause of the emotions and erectile dysfunction. As a result, any other Depression directly causes erectile dysfunction and low factors that distract the brain or interrupt these sexual interest, and treatments used for depression may messages can have a major efect on erectile function. Concerns about sexual Erectile dysfunction can also lead to depression which performance or physical appearance can also may be reversed by treating the erectile dysfunction. What are the less common causes of Psychological and physical factors together can erectile dysfunction? If getting and keeping an A less common cause of erectile dysfunction is erection is difcult during sexual intercourse with a Peyronies disease, which is the build-up of thick partner, but not at any other time, then the problem fbrous scar tissue (plaque) in the penis. It sometimes develops after happening, the cause of the problem is more likely to surgery to the penis for other problems, and sometimes be physical. Making sure that the situation and setting for sexual Sometimes trauma to the pelvic area can cause activity are right for both partners is very important for bruising or more severe damage to the nerves or successful and satisfying sexual relations. Sometimes blood vessels, which may cause short-lived erectile talking to a counsellor can help reduce anxiety and any problems. Long-distance and competitive bike riding other concerns about sexual performance. For some dysfunction can be prevented by good general health, that may be short term. Te sooner you see a doctor, the sooner you can receive treatment for any other serious medical problems you may have. By getting a diagnosis and controlling the erectile problems early, the damage done to the tissues of your body (including the penis) may be reduced. Te local doctor is the best frst point of contact if he should have you have erectile problems. Often the local doctor At frst, the doctor will need to talk to you to fnd a face to face can treat erectile problems without the need to refer out more about the problem. Local doctors are able to prescribe for you to see the doctor with your partner, if his local doctor, whether or not he medicines to treat erectile dysfunction. It is important possible; outcomes can be more successful if you wants to have sex to talk openly to a doctor about any problems with both understand the problem and agree from the sexual functioning but this may be difcult for both beginning how to treat the erectile dysfunction. Most doctors are trained to After taking a history of sexual function and general deal with these problems, but if the doctor is not medical factors, the doctor will do a physical comfortable or confdent in this area of medicine, examination that may include checking the penis they may refer you to a colleague in their practice or and testes. While the Internet is an important source of information, not all men can sort out which resources When the examination is fnished, the doctor will are safe and reliable. Te doctor will frst focus on Internet without a correct assessment is dangerous, understanding and treating any underlying medical and by bypassing the doctor, an opportunity for problems. For most men, erectile dysfunction cannot be cured; in the treatment Blood tests are often done to check glucose (sugar) for some there may be a reversible underlying cause. For this reason, it is important to assess all men with dysfunction where erectile problems to see if there is a treatable cause. Erectile difculties might happen when there has More complex tests such as tests on nerves and been a sudden psychological problem that is short- arteries are not usually needed, as the results do term and can be overcome. Drug and alcohol abuse can be treated and this may Men with hormonal or metabolic disorders such restore erectile function. Men with low testosterone as diabetes may need to see a specialist who levels may be helped with testosterone treatment. Usually there will not be a specifc treatment that If surgery is needed, or if there are other will lead to the improvement of erectile dysfunction. Many doctors have the necessary skills such as diabetes and heart disease, difculties alone will not fx the underlying health to discuss erectile problems in detail and to give so it is important to problem, which if left untreated can have serious support through this difcult phase. Tis is why over a few months may be needed to help re-establish men with erectile dysfunction need to see their local normal erectile function. Psychosocial problems are important and may cause Young, healthy men may at times worry about erectile dysfunction by themselves or together with their sexual performance, such as when starting a other causes of erectile dysfunction, such as diabetes new relationship or seeing advertisements for sexual and heart disease. Tey may seek many factors cause tensions, which can afect sexual treatment in the belief that they can improve their relations.
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