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Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es ExternalValidity Lo ssto fo llo w-In ten tio n - Auth o r, up: to -treat Po st- Num berscreen ed/ Year differen tial/h i(ITT) ran do m iz atio n Quality elig ible/ Co un try g h an alysis exclusio n s Ratin g en ro lled Exclusio n criteria Run -in /wash o ut Allen yes yes no fair NR /NR /150 c onditions th atm ig h taffec tg rowth 4-daysc reening 2002 orrequ irec onc om itant period U SA c ortic osteroidth erapy(exc eptfor asth m ac ontrolledb yas-needed Beta-ag onists adm inisteredon no m oreth an two days weekly),u se of inh aled,intranasal,oral,optic al, orinjec tab lec ortic osteroids or >1% c u taneou s h ydroc ortisone with in onem onth of th efirst prestu dystadiom etry m easu rem ents andevidenc eof m alnu trition. Ho lm yes Notc lear no fair NR /NR /42 seriou s oru nstab ledisease, 4-week plac eb o ru n- 1998 infec tion of th eu ppreandlower in Neth erlan ds respiratorytrac t,stru c tu ral ab norm alities orintranasal sym patic om im etic th erapy, preg nantorlac tating wom en. Sko n er No yes no fair NR /NR /100 Patients taking m edic ations Wash ou tperiods for 2000 known to affec tg rowth du ring th e m edic ations known stu dy to affec tg rowth were estab lish ed,b u tnot reportedin ab strac t NCS Page 350 of 357 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Eviden ceTable14. Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es Class Auth o r, n aïve Co n tro l g ro up Year patien ts stan dardo f Co un try o n ly care Fun din g Relevan ce Allen no yes GlaxoSm ith Kline yes 2002 su pportedstu dy U SA Ho lm no yes financ ialsu pport yes 1998 from Glaxo VB, Neth erlan ds Th eNeth erlands Sko n er no N/A NR yes 2000 NCS Page 351 of 357 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Eviden ceTable14. Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es InternalValidity Repo rtin g o f attritio n , Auth o r, Allo catio n Elig ibility Outco m e cro sso vers, Year Ran do m iz atio n co n cealm en t Gro upssim ilarat criteria assesso rs Carepro vider Patien t adh eren ce,an d Co un try adequate? Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es ExternalValidity Lo ssto fo llo w-In ten tio n - Auth o r, up: to -treat Po st- Num berscreen ed/ Year differen tial/h i(ITT) ran do m iz atio n Quality elig ible/ Co un try g h an alysis exclusio n s Ratin g en ro lled Exclusio n criteria Run -in /wash o ut Sch en kel no yes no fair NR /NR /98 Nonereportedin ab strac t Wash ou tperiods for 2000 m edic ations known Abstract to affec tg rowth were estab lish edb ased on estim atedperiod of effec tandth ese m edic ations were proh ib iteddu ring th e stu dy,b u tnot reportedin ab strac t. Sh ortc ou rses os eith eroral prednisonelasting no long erth an 7dor low-potenc ytopic al derm atolog ic al c ortic osteroids lasting no long er th an 10dwere perm ittedif nec essary NCS Page 353 of 357 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Eviden ceTable14. Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es Class Auth o r, n aïve Co n tro l g ro up Year patien ts stan dardo f Co un try o n ly care Fun din g Relevan ce Sch en kel no N/A NR yes 2000 Abstract NCS Page 354 of 357 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Eviden ceTable14. Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es InternalValidity Repo rtin g o f attritio n , Auth o r, Allo catio n Elig ibility Outco m e cro sso vers, Year Ran do m iz atio n co n cealm en t Gro upssim ilarat criteria assesso rs Carepro vider Patien t adh eren ce,an d Co un try adequate? Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es ExternalValidity Lo ssto fo llo w-In ten tio n - Auth o r, up: to -treat Po st- Num berscreen ed/ Year differen tial/h i(ITT) ran do m iz atio n Quality elig ible/ Co un try g h an alysis exclusio n s Ratin g en ro lled Exclusio n criteria Run -in /wash o ut Cutler no no (~7% no fair NR /NR /56 Historyof anydisorderth atm ig h t NR 2006 exc lu ded interferewith stu dyevalu ation;any from final loc alorsystem ic infec tion w/in 4 analysis) weeks of stu dy;UR TIw/in 6 weeks of stu dy;u seof presc riotion orOTCdru g s oth er th an forAR w/in 2weeks of stu dy; u seof anyinvestig ationaldru g w/in 30days of stu dy;u seof IM c ortic osteroids w/in 1yrororalor orallyornasalinh aled c ortic osteroids w/in 6m os of stu dy;m u ltipledru g allerg ies or c ortic osteroidallerg ies;positive h ep Bsu rfac eantig en orC antib odytest NCS Page 356 of 357 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Eviden ceTable14. Quality assessm en to fplacebo -co n tro lledtrialso fh arm so utco m es Class Auth o r, n aïve Co n tro l g ro up Year patien ts stan dardo f Co un try o n ly care Fun din g Relevan ce Cutler no yes Sc h ering Plou g h yes 2006 NCS Page 357 of 357 . Reports are not usage guidelines, nor should they be read as an endorsement of or recommendation for any particular drug, use, or approach. Oregon Health & Science University does not recommend or endorse any guideline or recommendation developed by users of these reports. Original Report: November 2004 Update 1: April 2006 The literature on this topic is scanned periodically. Update 2 prepared by: Susan Carson, MPH Nancy Lee, PharmD Sujata Thakurta, MPA:HA Drug Effectiveness Review Project Marian McDonagh, PharmD, Principal Investigator Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center Mark Helfand, MD, MPH, Director Oregon Health & Science University Copyright © 2010 by Oregon Health & Science University Portland, Oregon 97239. Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project The medical literature relating to this topic is scanned periodically. Prior versions of this report can be accessed at the DERP website. Antihistamines Page 2 of 72 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................... For outpatients with seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis or urticaria, do newer antihistamines differ in effectiveness?................................................................................................... For outpatients with seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis or urticaria, do newer antihistamines differ in harms?.............................................................................................................. Are there subgroups of patients based on demographics (age, racial groups, gender), concomitant medications (drug-drug interactions), co-morbidities (drug-disease interactions or pregnancy), for which one newer antihistamine is more effective or associated with fewer harms? Head-to-head trials in adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis...................................................... Total Symptom Score change from baseline in head-to-head trials in adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis......................................................................................................................................... Outcomes from trials in children with perennial allergic rhinitis................................................ Antihistamines Page 4 of 72 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Acknowledgments We thank Leah Williams, our publications editor, for putting this report into its present form for you to read. We also thank Patricia Thieda MA, Laurie Huffman, MS, Miranda Walker, MA, for assistance with data abstraction and quality assessment of studies, and Jennifer Nguyen for retrieval of articles and assistance with editing and formatting. Suggested citation for this report Carson S, Lee N, Thakurta S. Funding The Drug Effectiveness Review Project, composed of 12 organizations including 11 state Medicaid agencies and the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technology in Health commissioned and funded for this report. These organizations selected the topic of the report and had input into its Key Questions. The content and conclusions of the report were entirely determined by the Evidence-based Practice Center researchers. The authors of this report have no financial interest in any company that makes or distributes the products reviewed in this report. Antihistamines Page 5 of 72 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project INTRODUCTION Antihistamines inhibit the effects of histamine at H1 receptors. Histamine is a physiologically active, endogenous substance that binds to and activates histamine H1 and H2 receptors in the 2 respiratory tract (including the nose), the gastrointestinal tract, brain, adrenal medulla, skin 3 vasculature, and the heart. Antihistamines have a number of clinical indications including allergic conditions (rhinitis, dermatoses, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, mild transfusion reactions, and urticaria), chronic idiopathic urticaria, motion sickness, vertigo, and insomnia. In allergic conditions, histamine and other substances are secreted from mast cells, basophils, and other cell types.
Chemotherapy versus asparaginase during remission induction in children and adolescents allogeneic transplantation for very-high-risk childhood acute lympho- with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia purchase bimat 3ml overnight delivery. Analysis of the role of leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis discount 3 ml bimat with amex. Intrachromosomal ampliﬁ- pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a systematic review and cation of chromosome 21 is associated with inferior outcomes in meta-analysis. Lack of clarity in the 188 American Society of Hematology deﬁnition of treatment-related mortality: pediatric acute leukemia and 86. Children’s Oncology Group’s adult acute promyelocytic leukemia as examples. Augmented post-induction mortality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Pediatr Blood therapy for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a Cancer. Early postinduction lymphoblastic leukemia: a population-based analysis of the Austrian intensiﬁcation therapy improves survival for children and adolescents Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster study group. Dose intensiﬁcation of adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is caused by a methotrexate and cytarabine during intensiﬁed continuation chemo- higher rate of treatment-related mortality and not an increased relapse therapy for high-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: POG rate–a population-based analysis of 25 years of the Austrian ALL-BFM 9406: A report from the Children’s Oncology Group. J Pediatr Hematol (Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster) Study Group. Comparison of high-dose bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemo- methotrexate (HD-MTX) with Capizzi methotrexate plus asparaginase therapy. Prevention and treatment lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL): A report from the Children’s of cancer-related infections. Antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy for a minimal residual disease-deﬁned high-risk subgroup of outpatient management of fever and neutropenia in adults treated for children and young people with clinical standard-risk and intermediate- malignancy: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (UKALL 2003): a randomised guideline. Evens1 and Lale Kostakoglu2 1Division of Hematology-Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA; and 2Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY Given the excellent survival rates for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), the young age of many patients, and concerns regarding acute and late treatment-related toxicities, there is a desire to have a predictive tool that enables therapy to be tailored toward the individual patient. Early (or interim) 18F-ﬂuorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (FDG-PET/CT), as a test of tumor sensitivity to ongoing/planned therapy, has been shown to be prognostic for survival in HL. Based on results of interim FDG-PET/CT, therapy may be subsequently modiﬁed through minimization or via intensiﬁcation for low- and high-risk patient populations, respectively (ie, response-adapted therapy). Important data have been generated to standardize the interpretability and reproducibility of interim FDG-PET/CT (eg, the Deauville 5-point system), and observational and noncontrolled prospective studies have produced evidence supporting the hypothesis that response-adapted therapy may potentially serve as a predictive tool. Furthermore, results from noninferior- ity phase 3 clinical trials randomizing early-stage HL patients with negative interim FDG-PET/CT to combined modality therapy versus chemotherapy alone have been reported. The current collective ﬁndings from these randomized early-stage HL studies have shown that acute relapse rates are lower with combined modality therapy, even in patients with negative interim FDG-PET/CT. Additional randomized response-adapted studies are ongoing and novel FDG-PET/CT applications involving quantitative techniques and innovative imaging modalities are being investigated to identify more robust imaging biomarkers. Treatment of early-stage HL remains a clinical management choice for physicians and patients to make with consideration of acute and long-term outcomes. There is an interest to identify stratiﬁcation of patients with early-stage HL these high-risk groups earlier in the treatment course to potentially ● To discuss the reproducibility and interpretability of FDG- institute modiﬁed and/or intensiﬁed therapy, which may lead to PET/CT scanning in HL improved outcomes. In both clinical scenarios, it is desirable to have ● To examine study designs and results of observational and a prognostic tool that may predict patient outcome and allow recently completed prospective response-adaptive clinical therapy to be tailored toward the individual patient. The number of stage in only 10%–15% of patients in whom treatment is ultimately modiﬁed. FDG-PET/CT may have its current treatment paradigms, treatment-related toxicities remain a greatest impact, however, in the prediction of patient outcome with concern. These include increased risk of late effects such as second use of early (interim) imaging. Results from noncontrolled studies cancers and arterial disease,3-5 as well as a negative impact on of interim FDG-PET/CT (eg, after 2 cycles of chemotherapy) as a quality of life. It is reprinted with permission from Blood 2014, Volume 124. Hematology 2014 135 own control with a reference organ with relatively consistent metabolic activity (eg, mediastinal blood pool and liver), it minimizes interreader subjectivity and reduces interdevice inconsistency. The best result was obtained using Deauville 5PS criteria, which increased the PPV from 19% to 45%. Furthermore, interim FDG-PET/CT correlated strongest with progression-free Figure 1. Shown are the criteria for interpretation survival (PFS) using 5PS criteria (P. A Deauville score 3 is the most optimal cutoff of Deauville 5PS was also conﬁrmed in an international multicenter for interim PET with advanced-stage HL to increase PPV if intensiﬁcation study of a retrospective cohort of 260 advanced-stage HL patients of therapy is planned, whereas a cutoff 3 is desirable for nonbulky imaged after 2 of 6 intended cycles (ie, PET-2) of ABVD early-stage HL to enhance NPV. ES indicates early-stage; and AS, (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine), with no advanced stage. The sensitivity, speciﬁc- ity, NPV, and PPV for PET-2 were 73%, 94%, 94%, and 73%, Numerous studies have been published over the past decade respectively.
Appropri- discordant purchase 3 ml bimat otc, the predictive values are too low to act on and biopsy ate assessment of HIV as a comorbid condition is essential to 386 American Society of Hematology optimizing therapeutic strategies order bimat 3ml without a prescription. El-Sadr WM, Lundgren J, Neaton JD, et al; Strategies for enced the epidemiology of hematologic cancers in HIV, and those Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group. Pooled of malignancy and the speciﬁc therapy being administered. Off-label drug use: azidothymidine and ganciclo- 14. Rituximab plus vir for treatment of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus– concurrent infusional EPOCH chemotherapy is highly effective associated MCD. Relationship of Richard Little, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of p53, bcl-2, and tumor proliferation to clinical drug resistance in Health, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2062, Bldg 31, Rm B1-W30, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Bethesda, MD 20892; Phone: 240-276-6560; Fax: 240-276-7892; 16. Rituximab does not References improve clinical outcome in a randomized phase III trial of 1. Changes in AIDS-related CHOP with or without rituximab in patients with HIV- lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dose-reduced with dose-adjusted EPOCH: impact of antiretroviral therapy busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and autologous stem cell transplan- suspension and tumor biology. MYC aggressive dense rituximab (SC-EPOCH-RR) in HIV-associated diffuse B-cell lymphomas: novel therapy of untreated Burkitt lym- large B-cell lymphoma. Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeﬁciency, Abstract 71. HIV-1-related Hodgkin outcome of lymphoma patients transferred to the intensive care lymphoma in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: unit. Excellent immunological AIDS-deﬁning cancers among HIV-infected patients compared recovery following CODOX-M/IVAC, an effective intensive with the general population in a large health district of northern chemotherapy for HIV-associated Burkitt’s lymphoma. Xicoy B, Ribera JM, Miralles P, et al; PETHEMA Group; non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States: disentangling the GESIDA Group; GMALL Group. Estimated HIV prevalence in the United combined antiretroviral therapy. Lymphocyte HIV-infected patients with plasmablastic lymphoma: results depletion during treatment with intensive chemotherapy for from the German AIDS-related lymphoma cohort study. Human immunodeﬁ- and signiﬁcance of severe toxicity in patients with human ciency virus-associated plasmablastic lymphoma. High-dose are the main cytogenetic alteration in plasmablastic lympho- zidovudine plus valganciclovir for Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus- mas. Intensive ase chain reaction in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS-related chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, high-dose primary CNS lymphoma. AIDS-associated (CODOX-M/IVAC) for human immunodeﬁciency virus- primary central nervous system lymphoma (AIDS-PCNSL) associated Burkitt lymphoma. Oriol A, Ribera JM, Brunet S, del Potro E, Abella E, Esteve J. HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch experience, 2004-2011 Highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome of AIDS-related CROI 19. Hyperfractionated cyclophos- phoma treated with chemotherapy using doxorubicin, bleomy- phamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone and cin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine in the highly active antiretro- highly active antiretroviral therapy for patients with acquired viral therapy era. Frenette2-4 Departments of 1Pediatrics, 2Medicine, and 3Cell Biology, and 4Ruth L. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY Recurrent and unpredictable episodes of vaso-occlusion are the hallmark of sickle cell disease. Symptomatic management and prevention of these events using the fetal hemoglobin–reactivating agent hydroxyurea are currently the mainstay of treatment. Discoveries over the past 2 decades have highlighted the important contributions of various cellular and soluble participants in the vaso-occlusive cascade. The role of these elements and the opportunities for therapeutic intervention are summarized in this review. Introduction reported to interact with the subendothelial matrix proteins (eg, Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a single amino acid substitu- laminin, VWF). SS-RBC interactions with the vascular endothelium tion in the gene encoding the -globin subunit. Polymerization of may lead to the production of oxygen radicals by the endothelial cell deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin leads to decreased deformability and oxidant-dependent activation of the transcription factor NF- B. Through a complex interplay of adhesive NF- B up-regulates the transcription of various genes, including events among blood cells, these altered erythrocytes can obstruct the adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 on vasculature, producing episodes of pain, hemolytic anemia, organ the surface of the endothelium. Circulating endothelial cells charac- injury, and early mortality. Although the molecular basis of SCD is terized by an activated phenotype (expression of VCAM-1 and well characterized, the complex mechanisms underlying vaso- E-selectin) and increased levels of plasma sVCAM-1 have also been reported and are reﬂective of continuous endothelial activation. Early studies using in vitro adhesion assays or a rat mesocecum ex vivo perfusion Both endothelial selectins, P-selectin and E-selectin, have been suggested to participate in VOC. Random precapillary obstruction by a small (also called ICAM-4) is an RBC adhesion receptor that can be number of dense SS-RBCs also contributes to VOC.
FCR-LITE decreases ﬂudarabine and effective therapy options for older and more frail patients discount bimat 3ml otc. Both bendamustine91 and alemtuzumab92 have demon- 1 3ml bimat. Molecular pathogenesis of strated higher overall and complete response rates as well as longer chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Chronic lymphocytic leukae- mia: the role of the microenvironment pathogenesis and Nonchemotherapy regimens such as alemtuzumab-rituximab,93-95 therapy. Cellular origin(s) of chronic lympho- rituximab,97 rituximab monotherapy,98 rituximab–GM-CSF,99 and cytic leukemia: cautionary notes and additional considerations high-dose methylprednisolone rituximab100 have also been ex- and possibilities. Implications of new prognostic markers in rituximab regimen for patients with nonbulky disease and/or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol del(17p13) and the methylprednisolone-rituximab regimen, there Educ Program. Predicting clinical outcome in CLL: how and regimens. An approach to selecting therapy for elderly patients that considers 6. The B-cell receptor life expectancy, the result of genetic testing, and performance signaling pathway as a therapeutic target in CLL. Early results of a options for CLL patients by current National Comprehensive chemoimmunotherapy regimen of ﬂudarabine, cyclophospha- Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. When selecting among differ- mide, and rituximab as initial therapy for chronic lymphocytic ent CIT regimens (FR, PCR, BR, reduced-intensity FCR strategies) leukemia. Addition of toxicity, and durability of remission may lead different providers to rituximab to ﬂudarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients favor subtly different approaches. All of these strategies could be with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a randomised, open- considered a high-activity approach, where some variation in label, phase 3 trial. Minimal residual disease quantiﬁcation is an independent predictor of progres- Conclusion sion-free and overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leuke- The management of elderly patients with CLL is more complex than mia: a multivariate analysis from the randomized GCLLSG that of younger patients due to the greater frequency of comorbidi- CLL8 trial. Improving The actuarial life expectancy of 70- to 80-year-old individuals is efﬁciency and sensitivity: European Research Initiative in longer than most physicians estimate. CLL will ultimately become CLL (ERIC) update on the international harmonised approach the cause of death for a majority of elderly patients once they for ﬂow cytometric residual disease monitoring in CLL. Improving survival CLL patients, ﬁt elderly adults should be treated with highly active in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1980-2008): CIT approaches with the goal of achieving a reasonable depth of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona experience. CIT platforms ﬁt this proﬁle and are appropriate treatment options. Trends in long-term survival Cytogenetic abnormalities are an important consideration in treat- of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia from the 1980s ment selection, even among elderly patients. Age at diagnosis and deﬁne optimal management for these individuals. Priority should be the utility of prognostic testing in patients with chronic given to enrolling patients in these studies, particularly because lymphocytic leukemia. Optimal pharmacotherapeutic manage- potential to transform the care of CLL patients in the near future. Treatment of Disclosures patients with CLL 70 years old and older: a single center Conﬂict-of-interest disclosure: The author has received research experience of 142 patients. First-line therapy Off-label use of ﬂudarabine, pentostatin, rituximab, ofatumuamb, with ﬂudarabine compared with chlorambucil does not result lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, ibrutinib, GS1101, and methyl- in a major beneﬁt for elderly patients with advanced chronic prednisolone for treatment of CLL. Social Security Online, Retirement & Survivor Beneﬁts, 2013. Tait Shanafelt, MD, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St, Rochester, MN html. Immunochemotherapy with ﬂudarabine (F), cyclo- oncology consultation modify the cancer treatment plan for phosphamide (C), and rituximab (R) (FCR) versus ﬂudarabine elderly patients? Hematologist/ tients (pts) with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia oncologist disease-speciﬁc expertise and survival: lessons (CLL). Management of infectious complications in survival in unselected, newly diagnosed patients with chronic patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Infectious complications in patients with chronic logical Malignancies in the Elderly. Second cancer incidence adults after hospitalization. Management and geriatric assessment of cancer in patients: a population-based study. Chronic lympho- assessment predicts tolerance to chemotherapy and survival in cytic leukemia is associated with decreased survival of elderly patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma: a GINECO patients with malignant melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma study. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and J Clin Epidemiol. Association between ciency and prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia [ab- blood pressure and the rate of decline in renal function with stract]. Vitamin D insufﬁ- kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US ciency predicts time to ﬁrst treatment (TFT) in early chronic population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
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