By C. Leon. University of Saint Francis. 2018.
Temperatures of this treatment range elbows) may cause pain and possible tissue dam- from 110°F to 123°F (43 discount ayurslim 60caps with amex. Exposure to the electrode drum during ing and increasing the ﬂow of blood to the limb purchase 60caps ayurslim with amex, diathermy may produce hot spots. Sluggish or administered by way of an ultrasound transmitting impaired blood circulation may contribute to heat- device, penetrates the body to provide relief to related injuries. Also a diagnostic tool, ultrasound used for pregnant women or individuals afﬂicted energy occurs in the acoustic or sound spectrum with heart, lung, or kidney diseases, or on areas and is undetectable to the human ear. By using above the eye or heart, or over areas where there conducting agents such as gel or mineral oil, the are metal surgical implants. Certain areas of the muscu- loskeletal system absorb ultrasound better than hypnotherapy Also referred to as hypnosis, var- others. Muscle tissue and other connective tissue ied techniques used by psychiatrists, psychologists, such as ligaments and tendons absorb this form of and other psychotherapists to guide the patient energy very well; fat absorbs it to a much lesser into a state of altered awareness, deep relaxation, degree. Ultrasound has a relatively long-lasting or trance in order to help treat anxiety, panic effect, continuing up to one hour. Hypnosis has also enjoyed much popularity between the 1940s and been used successfully as a substitute for pharma- 1960s before the use of ultrasound, employs an ceutical anesthesia. The system is founded on the electrode drum used to apply heat to an affected idea of the power of suggestion—that one’s emo- hypnotherapy 63 tional status has a signiﬁcant effect on one’s physi- Freud, known as the father of modern psychiatry, cal status, a concept dating back to ancient Greece, used hypnosis in his practice in the 19th century, India, and Persia. In 1958 the American Medical Mesmerism—to the medical community in the late Association also ofﬁcially recognized hypnosis; that 18th century. Mesmer’s theory was that when mag- recognition eventually led to the establishment of netic forces existing in all matter became unbal- several professional associations, including the anced, disease occurred, and he believed he could American Society of Clinical Hypnosis and the transfer his body’s “animal magnetism” to another American Institute of Hypnotherapy, whose mem- through the use of magnets, iron rods, and “mes- bers are physicians, psychologists, dentists, and merizing,” or highly soothing, verbal suggestions other health professionals. Despite the fact that Contemporary hypnosis has been shown to help the healing potential of mind over matter and deep the body release endorphins and enkephalins relaxation states including trance emerged, Mes- (morphine-like chemicals naturally produced by mer’s theories could not be scientiﬁcally proved by the body to assuage pain and promote a sense of a committee of investigators in the French medical well-being), improve circulation, lower blood pres- community, among whom were the American sure and heart rate, and generally elicit deep relax- statesman Benjamin Franklin and the French physi- ation that is beneﬁcial in ﬁghting stress, anxiety, cian Josef de Guillotin. Mesmer was branded a depression, chronic pain, and disease of many quack and banned from practicing in France. Many hypnotherapists say that the patient It was later that the British ophthalmologist beneﬁts most if he or she is willing to participate in James Braid explored Mesmer’s ideas with his the process of hypnosis, and that people who are patients and renamed the technique hypnosis, after not willing cannot be hypnotized. While scholars infusion A liquid injected into a vein, or a sub- feel that massage originated in China it is certain stance steeped in hot or cold water and ingested for that each country throughout the world had devel- therapeutic purposes. A tea is considered an infu- oped and passed down their methods for treating sion, for example. Ancient writings of Egypt, venous infusion may be a solution containing Persia, Greece, Rome, and Asian countries mention electrolytes, nutrients, and pharmaceutical agents. An infusodecoction is an infusion followed by a We instinctively rub, press, pat, or in some way decoction, that is, a medicine stock that contains a touch when we ache, feel pain, or just don’t feel crude drug that is ﬁrst steeped in cold water and right. The simple understand- an alternative method for the treatment of certain ing that humans are equipped to heal themselves, cancers, involving the administration of a small and that we can also help others, is the underlying dose of insulin to cancer patients with the intention foundation of shiatsu. If we live according to nat- of inducing hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar ural laws we really shouldn’t have many troubles. It is believed that once low blood sugar level Unfortunately we don’t consistently live that way is achieved, low doses of intravenous conventional and humankind has had to devise ways to deal chemotherapy may be more effective, because with the suffering that we experience. Ultimately insulin potentiates the cells’ ability to be permeated to regain wholeness we must change our way of by the cancer medications. There are many tools that we can use in this insulin receptors than normal cells, and therefore process. In Shiatsu practitioners have long been considered addition insulin can stimulate proliferation of cer- authorities on treating minor diseases in Japan. In tain cancer cells, to create a larger, more receptive general, the Japanese public favors shiatsu treat- target for the chemotherapeutic agents. The pre- Interior Realignment A feng shui approach viously mentioned forms of massage and shiatsu are devised by Denise Linn, of Seattle, Washington, wonderful tools for the betterment of health. With author of Past Lives, Present Dreams; Sacred Space: life forever changing, even these techniques must Clearing and Enhancing the Energy of Your Home; The continue to evolve. Although iridolo- observed that an owl with a broken leg also had a gists take an extensive personal and medical black mark in his iris. Later the doctor observed the history of each patient and may be qualiﬁed to same eye mark in a human patient with a broken offer nutritional advice or prescribe certain treat- leg; that discovery led him to investigate marking ment, iridology cannot replace other diagnostic in the iris as a sign of dysfunction or impairment methods in conventional and alternative medicine. It is reported on some websites pertaining to iridol- The ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Chinese ogy that some Russian scientists are developing maintained that a person’s eyes held information irischromotherapy, which involves curing disease about his or her health. According to tion that helps discover any constitutional weak- Web information on Suﬁ healing, Suﬁs revere the ness before a clinical outbreak occurs. It is healing of the sick as the most important of all ser- considered a unique preventive method used to vices to humanity, and a book has been written on determine the body’s tendency toward certain ail- the 800-year tradition of this “divine science” of ments (for example, certain characteristics of the the Christi Order (one of the Suﬁ healing orders). Iridologists may make tion, fasting and prayer, talismans, and the a videotape or photographic slide of the iris using a ‘infallible remedy.
Nutraceutical therapies tacrolimus generic ayurslim 60 caps without a prescription, mycophenolic acid and relatively low doses of for degenerative joint diseases: a critical review purchase 60 caps ayurslim with visa. When seen in follow up at approximately nine months meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Current concepts in Current clinical examination revealed some mild subcostal the therapeutic management of osteoarthritis with glucosamine. British Journal of Clinical laboratory investigation revealed no infectious cause. St John’s wort-associated drug interactions: short- pressive regimen that could lead to this clinical situation? Answer 2 It is possible, but should be clarified with the patient, that she has been taking St John’s wort for anxiety and insom- nia. The current public view of St John’s wort is that it is a harmless, herbal therapy that can be used to help patients with anxiety, insomnia and depression. Carefully enquiring about this possibility with the patient would be mandatory in this case. Apart from rifampicin, other drugs that induce 3A4 (but which the patient has not been prescribed) include phenobarbitone, carbamazepine, other rifamycins, pioglitazone, nevirapine (see Chapter 13). In this associated with troubled dreams punctuated by repeated wak- chapter, we discuss the management – both non-pharmacological enings. The result is that both patient and doctor are tempted to restart medication to suppress the withdrawal phenomena, resulting in a vicious cycle. These include: edly occurs in 35% of adults and is most frequent in women • pain (e. Yes No No Yes Treat underlying Treat underlying cause (Physical/ cause (Physical/ Psychological) Psychological) Chronic/ Chronic/ long-term long-term cause? Yes No No Yes Non-pharmacological Non-pharmacological methods/ methods/ behavioural behavioural therapies therapies No No Severe Severe and/or and/or disabling? Yes Yes First line First line Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepine Alternative (elderly) Second line (where sedation Clomethiazole is to be avoided) Buspirone Second line Zopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon Figure 18. Much chronic insomnia is due to dependence on hypnotic • Drugs of other types may be needed when insomnia drugs. In addition, external factors such as noise, snoring part- complicates psychiatric illness. Shortened sleep time is common in the elderly, and Antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, may help to patients with dementia often have a very disturbed sleep pattern. They should be used for short • Hypnotics should not be routinely given to hospital periods (two to four weeks at most) and, if possible, taken patients or in any other situation, except where intermittently. On withdrawal the dose and frequency of specifically indicated and for short-term use only. There is currently no evidence people experience sleepiness after a warm bath and/or of superiority for the newer ‘non-benzodiazepine’ sexual activity. A milk-based drink before bed can promote hypnotics that act nonetheless on benzodiazepine sleep, but may cause nocturia and, in the long run, weight receptors (see below). Increased explanation from the outset that these will not be continued daytime exercise improves sleep at night. It also causes dehydration (gueule de bois) and other unpleasant manifestations of hangover. It is due to mismatching of the body clock with his life quite significantly, so that he feels tired most (circadian dysrhythmia) against a new time environment with of the day and is having difficulty holding down his job as its own time cues (Zeitgebers). Thus, one should but says that he will only give it for a maximum of a month, rest in a dark room at night, even if not tired, and eat, work and as he does not want his patient to become addicted. Sufferers should not allow themselves Question 1 to sleep during the day (easier said than done! However, short-acting benzodiazepines may be Answer 1 effective if taken before going to bed for two or three nights. Although the benzodiazepine might help in the short Melatonin is of uncertain usefulness but may help sleep term, it does not provide the patient with a long-term solu- patterns, and improves daytime well-being if taken in the tion, and does not tackle the root cause of his insomnia. A better strategy is to allow the subject to have a short, non-drug-induced sleep during the night shift. Pathological This improves efficiency towards the end of the night shift and anxiety is fear that is sufficiently severe as to be disabling. Episodes of paroxys- The use of hypnotics in children is not recommended, except mal severe anxiety associated with severe autonomic symptoms in unusual situations (e. Hypnotics are sometimes attacks and often accompany a generalized anxiety disorder.
And research with humans finds that bilinguals remember better when tested in the same language in which they  learned the material (Marian & Kaushanskaya proven ayurslim 60 caps, 2007) order ayurslim 60caps with amex. People who learn information when they are in a bad (rather than a good) mood find it easier to recall these memories when they are tested while they are in a bad mood, and vice versa. It is easier to recall unpleasant memories than pleasant ones when we‘re sad, and easier to recall pleasant memories than unpleasant ones when we‘re happy (Bower, 1981; Eich,  2008). Variations in the ability to retrieve information are also seen in the serial position curve. People are able to retrieve more words that were presented to them at the beginning and the end of the list than they are words that were presented in the middle of the list. This pattern, known as the serial position curve, is caused by two retrieval phenomenon: The primacy effect refers to a tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list. The recency effect refers to the tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list. There are a number of explanations for primacy and recency effects, but one of them is in terms of the effects of rehearsal on short-term and long-term memory (Baddeley, Eysenck, &  Anderson, 2009). Because we can keep the last words that we learned in the presented list in short-term memory by rehearsing them before the memory test begins, they are relatively easily remembered. So the recency effect can be explained in terms of maintenance rehearsal in short- term memory. And the primacy effect may also be due to rehearsal—when we hear the first word in the list we start to rehearse it, making it more likely that it will be moved from short-term to long-term memory. Retroactive interferenceoccurs when learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information that was learned earlier. For example, if you have learned to program in one computer language, and then you learn to program in another similar one, you may start to make mistakes programming the first language that you never would have Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. In this case the new memories work backward (retroactively) to influence retrieval from memory that is already in place. In contrast to retroactive interference, proactive interference works in a forward direction. Proactive interference occurs when earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later. For example, if we have learned French as a second language, this knowledge may make it more difficult, at least in some respects, to learn a third language (say Spanish), which involves similar but not identical vocabulary. Forming categories, and using categories to guide behavior, is a fundamental part of human nature. Associated concepts within a category are connected through spreading activation, which occurs when activating one element of a category activates other associated elements. For instance, because tools are associated in a category, reminding people of the word “screwdriver‖ will help them remember the word “wrench. If they have just remembered the word “wrench,‖ they are more likely to remember the word “screwdriver‖ next than they are to remember the word “dahlia,‖ because the words are organized in memory by category and because dahlia‖ is activated by spreading  activation from“wrench‖ (Srull & Wyer, 1989). Some categories have defining features that must be true of all members of the category. For instance, all members of the category “triangles‖ have three sides, and all members of the category “birds‖ lay eggs. But most categories are not so well-defined; the members of the category share some common features, but it is impossible to define which are or are not members of the category. Members of categories (even those with defining features) can be compared to the category prototype, which is the member of the category that is most average or typical of the category. Some category members are more prototypical of, or similar to, the category than others. For instance, some category members (robins and sparrows) are highly prototypical of the category “birds,‖ whereas other category members (penguins and ostriches) are less prototypical. We retrieve information that is prototypical of a category faster than we retrieve information that  is less prototypical (Rosch, 1975). Mental categories are sometimes referred to as schemas—patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information. We have schemas about objects (that a triangle has three sides and may take on different angles), about people (that Sam is friendly, likes to golf, and always wears sandals), about events (the particular steps involved in ordering a meal at a restaurant), and about social groups (we call these group schemas stereotypes). Read the following paragraph (Bransford & Johnson,  1972) and then try to write down everything you can remember. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one never can tell. After the procedure is completed, one arranges the materials into different groups again. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. It turns out that people‘s memory for this information is quite poor, unless they have been told ahead of time that the information describes “doing the laundry,‖ in which case their memory for the material is much better.
Repression can range from mo- lowing a catharsis of the original emotion—but toward mentary memory lapses to forgetting the details of a cat- a safer target buy ayurslim 60 caps without prescription, such as a sibling ayurslim 60 caps on-line, peer, or even a toy. Other situations may also occasion the repres- parent who is repressing feelings of resentment or rejec- sion of hostile feelings toward a loved one (especially a tion toward a child may overcompensate by appearing to parent). Possibly the most extreme is child abuse, the be lavishly generous and solicitous of the child’s wel- memory of which may remain repressed long into adult- fare. In this type of situation, the child generally senses hood, sometimes being deliberately retrieved in therapy the true hostility underlying the parent’s behavior. The Freudian stage of sexual laten- pression, is suppression, by which unpleasant feelings cy in middle childhood is yet another example of reac- are suppressed through a conscious decision not to think tion formation: in order to repress their sexual feelings, about them. Suppression differs from repression and de- children at this age evince a strong sense of indifference nial in that the undesirable feelings are available but de- or even hostility toward the opposite sex. Sometimes a liberately ignored (unlike repression and denial, where distinction is drawn between feelings that are diametri- the person is completely unaware of these feelings). Sup- cally opposed to a repressed impulse and the actual be- pression generally works by replacing unpleasant havior that expresses them, with the former called reac- thoughts with others that do not produce stress. Cognitive behavior therapy in par- Two defense mechanisms—regression and fixation ticular makes use of this technique to help people com- —are associated with developmental disturbances in bat negative thought patterns that produce maladaptive children. In this way, inappropriate sexual or aggressive gained developmental ground but refuses to move ahead impulses can be released in sports, creative pursuits, or because developmental progress has come to be associat- other activities. Other defense Identification, which is basic to human development mechanisms generally viewed in a positive light include and an essential part of the learning process, can also compensation —devoting unusual efforts to achievement serve as a defense mechanism. Taking on the characteris- in order to overcome feelings of inferiority—and the use tics of someone else can enable a person to engage in of humor as a coping device. Further Reading Another motive for identification is a fear of losing the Firestone, Robert W. New York: Human Sciences Press, known variety of identification is identification with the 1989. New way takes on the traits of the victimizer to combat feel- York: International Universities Press, 1966. Vital Lies, Simple Truths: The Psychology of may occur in response to aggression that is imagined Self-Deception. In introjection, which is related to identification, only a particular aspect of someone else’s personality is internalized. Delayed response Rationalization, another type of defense mecha- A characteristic event of an experimental proce- nism, is an attempt to deny one’s true motives (to oneself dure in which the subject is not permitted to re- spond to a stimulus until some time after the stimu- or others) by using a reason (or rationale) that is more lus has been removed. Typical rationalizations include such statements as “I don’t care if I wasn’t chosen for the team; I didn’t really A delayed response experiment might include plac- want to play soccer anyway” and “I couldn’t get my ing a stimulus object inside one of several similar homework done because I had too many other things to opaque containers while the subject is watching but is do. Their sponse experiments have been conducted in the psycho- advanced cognitive development makes many adoles- logical study of both animals and (usually very young) cents adept at this strategy. Some psychologists believe that the ability to respond appropriately after a significant delay indicates Like rationalization, isolation is a rather complicat- the operation of some form of advanced mental func- ed defense. It involves compartmentalizing one’s experi- tioning, and that investigations of delayed response are ence so that an event becomes separated from the feel- useful in the comparative psychological analysis of vari- ings that accompanied it, allowing it to be consciously ous species. Isolation can take on aspects of a dissociative disorder, with chil- dren separating parts of their lives to the point that they think of themselves as more than one person (for exam- ple, a good child and a bad one who only appears under certain circumstances). By compartmentalizing they can Delayed speech be relieved of feeling responsible for the actions of the “bad child. Occasionally, however, recovery from delir- ium is limited by neurological or other damage. The ability to forgo an immediate pleasure or re- ward in order to gain a more substantial one later. Almost everyone, everyday, practices delay of grati- fication—whether deciding to skip dessert in order to Delusion/Delusional lose weight or give up smoking in order to live longer. Young children, for example, Beliefs that are in stark contrast to reality, often find it more difficult to delay gratification than older having to do with persecution or an exaggerated children. Delusions are generally experienced by people suf- This number decreased to 67% among first and second fering from a severe psychotic disorder, usually schizo- graders and 49% for third and fourth graders. By the phrenia, although delusional thinking can occur in other fifth and sixth grades it had fallen to 38%, nearly half the types of patients (as the result of drug or alcohol abuse, rate for kindergartners. Typical delusional ideas are categorized into delusions of grandeur, in which a person imagines Although most people show an improved ability to for him or herself some God-given purpose or, in some delay gratification as they get older, some are more suc- cases, believe they are in fact historical personalities of cessful at it than others. Another type of delusion are delusions most successful in delaying gratification are those with of persecution, in which a patient will believe that some an internal locus of control (a strong belief that their ac- person or group is out to harm him. By contrast, people with an delusions involve what are referred to as “command hal- external locus of control are less likely to forego present lucinations,” in which a person hears voices telling him pleasures for greater future gain. These delusional thoughts can lead people to acts of self-mutilation or to violent crimi- nal acts. People suffering from depression often experience delusions such as beliefs that they are worth- A mental condition characterized by disorienta- tion, confusion, uncontrolled imagination, reduced less, sinful, or too unlikable to engage productively in so- ability to focus or to maintain attention, and gener- ciety. Other forms of delusional thinking occur in people al inability to correctly comprehend immediate re- with somatoform and dissociative identity disorders.
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