By O. Roy. Baptist Bible College and Seminary. 2018.
Seminar: Problem based evaluation of anemias 9th week: 2nd week: Seminar: Problem based evaluation of tumors of the Seminar: Problem based evaluation of myeloproliferative urinary tract disorders 10th week: 3rd week: Seminar: Problem based evaluation of prostate cancer Seminar: Problem based evaluation of lymphoproliferative disorders I buy cheap atarax 10mg. What a 12th week: seahorse can teach us about mitochondrial function and Practical: Immunosuppression in action purchase 25 mg atarax with visa. Students will work in small groups (2-3 students/group) and will be asigned a tutor who will supervise their activities and labwork. During the laboratory sessions, the students perform experiments related to the chosen problem and will learn how to collect data, interpret and evaluate results, how to analyze data statistically and how to draw conclusions. In a closing session, the group and the tutor discuss the results and evaluate the project. Diagnosis and treatment of intracranial space 2nd week: occupying lesions (except hematomas). Causes and management of hydrocephalus (obstructive, communicating, congenital, 9th week: acquired). The convincing knowledge of this material and the active participation of each practical lesson are the condition of a successful examination. The six lectures will complete the textbook with new data and stress the importance of the symptomatology and diagnostic possibilities of the more frequent neurosurgical diseases, mainly from practical points of view. These will facilitate the understanding of the textbook and the theses of the examination as well. The task of the practicum is the collection of personal practical experience of the neurosurgical diseases at bedside. No more than two misses of lectures and one miss of seminars and accepted written test exam are needed to get the credit. Requirements Aim of the course is to have the students understand the principle of statistical tests, be able to choose the right methods for answering common questions arisen in medical research, and understand their results. Diagnostics test of female and and abnormal sexual development, normal and abnormal male infertility. Intrauterine contraception (medicated and non-medicated Requirements Reproductive Endocrinology covers the physiology and pathophysiology of the female reproductive system, from puberty through the reproductive ages, until and beyond the menopause. Over the decades, advances of genetics, molecular biology and clinical epidemiology resulted in rapidly growing information and threapeutical possibilities in the fields of gynecologic endocrinology, infertility and menopause. Along with the increasing expectation of the patients, these led to the recognition, that professional prevention and restoration of the female reproductive health requires wide knowledge, which goes beyond the basics of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The aim of the course is to gain detailed knowledge on the physiological basics and clinical practice of wide spectum of disorders in the field of gynecologic endocrinology, infertility and menopause. Throughout ten weeks, on each occasion, lectures are followed with interactive seminars, case presentations. The Seminars and Practical sessions are supporting the learning and understanding of the topics. Aims of the course: To teach the molecular and morphological aspects of clinical neurosciences and to provide a solid basis for the clinical studies and medical practice. To refresh the relevant knowledge acquired at the pre-clinical studies (Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry) in a clinico-pathological context. Service delivery in rehabilitation (inpatient, outpatient and community-based 4th week: services) - Zsuzsanna Vekerdy-Nagy M. Basic principles of therapy approaches in psychiatric rehabilitation - János Kollár Ph. D Requirements Course description: The aims of the course are understanding the basic principles of the rehabilitation medicine and a special approach to acute medicine with acknowledging the importance of rehabilitation. Dietary problem handicap, deficiency, disability, participation – the health of people with disabilities concept in different cultures and societies). Lecture: Social aspects of disabilities, characteristic features of groups of people with disabilities, homes of 3rd week: people with disabilities, segregated institutes, Lecture: Communicational problems, basic issues of stigmatization, discrimination, employment, psychology. Target group: foreign and Hungarian students of medicine, students of psychology, pedagogy, social workers, physiotherapists, student of Faculty of Public Health. Announced for students in year: from 3rd year students semester: 1st semester, to 5th year semester: 2nd Coordinator: Janos Kollar, PhD. Signature of Lecture Book Lecture attendance may be followed up by the Department. The lectures of the credit course are listed at the web site of the Department of Physiology (http://phys. Examination At the end of the course a written final assessment will be organized in the form of multiple choice questions. The result of this assessment will determine the verification mark of the credit course using the following conversion table: 0-39. The program is conducted between 3rd and 11th academic weeks of the second semester.
With time purchase atarax 25 mg with mastercard, these le- sions may progress to oviductal adenoma and adeno- carcinoma discount 10mg atarax mastercard. Carcinomatosis, if present, will appear as multiple, small white nod- ules on serosal surfaces. Polyostotic hyperostosis is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome associated with oviductal adenocarcinoma. Fi- brovascular stroma is variable, but fibroplasia is more intense with adenocarcinomas. Oral papillomas are occasionally encountered, espe- cially in psittacine birds, and may involve the oro- pharyngeal, choanal or laryngeal regions of the phar- ynx. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Squamous cell carcino- mas are second to papillomas in frequency and may involve the oral cavity and tongue. Granulomatous response is considered a precursor to some oral tumors (see Color 25. Histologically, of neoplasms observed on the mucosal surfaces of the squamous cell carcinomas are composed of sheets, esophagus and crop, especially in psittacine spe- nests and cords of pleomorphic epithelial cells that cies. Keratin pearl formation and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Squamous cell carci- adenoid patterns are observed less frequently. Microscopically, the Miscellaneous Neoplasms: Miscellaneous oral neo- neoplasm was composed of aggregates of pleomorphic plasms include a mast cell tumor in an owl and a squamous epithelial cells that extended into the sub- fibrosarcoma in a budgerigar. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the tongue also Leiomyosarcoma: A multifocal leiomyosarcoma has has been described in an owl (Figure 25. The only clinical sign attributed to this neo- Esophagus and Crop plasm was difficulty in swallowing. Neoplasms of the proventriculus are approximately This lesion has been described as an “epithelioma” in twice as common compared to neoplasms of the ven- the crop of a pigeon. In contrast, the koilin secretory product of ventricular epithelial cells is alcian blue-positive and appears bright blue. A sin- gle ventricular adenoma has been re- served and often arise from the junction of these two ported in a parrot but the neoplasm organs. On gross examina- On gross inspection, proventricular carcinomas ap- tion, the proventriculus was spherical instead of fusi- pear as ulcerated, thickened, raised or depressed form. Clinically, gastrointestinal bleeding, as de- hemorrhagic, fibrillated, plaque-like mass. Histologi- termined by observation of melena, anemia or a posi- cally, the mass was composed of tubuloacinar struc- tive fecal occult blood test, should alert the clinician tures lined by one-to-four layers of short, columnar to the possibility of gastrointestinal neoplasia. Cellular nuclei were centrally lo- vere bleeding, hypovolemic shock or exsanguination cated, vesicular and had a small nucleolus. Few mitotic figures were hibit rare transmural extension with serosal metas- observed and fibrovascular stromal tissue was mini- tasis to the ventriculus, intestine and pancreas or mal. Individual cells plasms can best be managed by surgical excision and have vesicular nuclei and eosinophilic-to-basophilic intestinal anastomosis if the lesions are diagnosed cytoplasm. Mitotic figures may be observed fre- early, if metastasis has not occurred and if the site quently. The luminal surface of the neoplasm is often ulcerated, while deep margins of the neo- plasm exhibit invasion of the muscularis. Major clinical signs associated with cloacal papillomas are straining, bleeding from the vent and cloacal prolapse. A viral etiology has been suggested for these neoplasms, but has yet to be confirmed. Depending upon the biopsy site, epithelial cells may exhibit a transition from colum- nar to squamous morphology. Epithelial cells on the luminal surface may contain basophilic intracyto- plasmic mucin granules that can be demonstrated by alcian blue and mucicarmine staining. Furthermore, ventriculus (arrows) (consistent with neoplasm) (courtesy of Jane cloacal papillomas may rarely undergo malignant Turrel). Leiomyosarcoma: Primary intestinal leiomyosarco- Hepatic Neoplasms mas have been observed in budgerigars. Metastatic Both primary and metastatic neoplasia occur in the lesions were not observed. The most frequent primary hepatic neoplasms are hepatocellular carcinoma and bile duct carci- Intestinal Carcinoma: Intestinal carcinoma has noma. Conditions that must be differentiated from been reported in a budgerigar, duck and gull. This is the most mas, adenocarcinomas, and adenomatous polyps and frequent hepatic neoplasm reported in captive and hyperplasia are observed most commonly in psitta- free-ranging birds (lymphoid neoplasms are most cine birds, especially Amazon parrots. Bizarre-to-multinucleated hepatocytes On gross inspection, the hepatic parenchyma con- may be observed. Variable numbers of mitotic figures tains numerous, variably sized, firm, white-to-tan are present.
However buy cheap atarax 25mg, pure isolates of Staphylococcus material in the nasal cavity discount 10 mg atarax, infraorbital sinus and spp. Birds with a history of stress, unsanitary The tracheal mite, Sternostoma tracheacolum may conditions or malnutrition and birds affected by oil cause severe respiratory signs in finches and canar- spills or other toxins are most susceptible. Symptoms include vocalization changes, a char- tions may be acute, chronic or associated with myco- acteristic clicking during respiration, tail-bobbing tic tracheitis. Transtracheal illumination may weeks to several months after the bird is removed be helpful in diagnosing infections. The identification from an environment contaminated with cigarette of eggs in mucus from the trachea is diagnostic (see smoke. Rhinitis and Sinusitis Gapeworms (Syngamus trachea) inhabit the trachea Rhinitis may be caused by chemical, bacterial, fun- and glottis area of an infected bird. Visuali- vironmental factors may include cigarette smoke, zation of large, bright-red helminths that are in a excessive powder down, dust from organic debris Y-configuration in the glottal opening are indicative (bedding, flooring substrate), nutritional deficiencies of infection. South American Psit- fects ground-dwelling species, usually in zoo and taciformes that are exposed to the dander of cocka- aviary situations. Antibiotics should be used with caution Sarcocystis falcatula is a coccidian parasite with an in mild undiagnosed rhinitis. Similar cryptosporidia are other parasites that have been lesions are seen when the heat or air conditioning documented in the respiratory system of companion systems are first turned on, which might suggest the birds. Birds are sus- ceptible to influenza-A virus and could, theoretically, Birds are sensitive to inhaled toxins and have his- be infected through exposure to diseased members of torically been used as sentinel animals to detect toxic the household (see Chapter 32). Clients should be educated with respect to the adverse effects that fumes from common household compounds can have on their Miscellaneous Conditions companion birds. The clinical changes following in- Choanal Atresia halation of household fumes may include irritation of An African Grey Parrot chick with bilateral serous mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, dyspnea nasal discharge starting at four days of age was or peracute death (see Chapter 37). Fluids Cigarette Smoke introduced into the nasal cavity did not enter the Passive exposure to cigarette smoke is a common mouth and a rhinogram (nasal sinus contrast study) cause of primary respiratory problems in birds as indicated that there was no communication between well as a common complicating factor in other respi- the nasal passage and the choanal slit (see Figure ratory illnesses. Endoscopy of the choanal slit and surround- cause a mixture of clinical problems including con- ing structures revealed an intact membrane covering junctivitis, sinusitis, air sacculitis, rhinitis and der- the choana at the level of the palate. Similarly, an Umbrella ease in birds that are exposed to cigarette smoke are Cockatoo with a three-year history of intermittent difficult, if not impossible. In many cases, complete serous to mucopurulent oculonasal discharge was cessation of all respiratory signs occurs from several found to have a deformed hard palate with no cho- anal slit. Given the vascular- ity of the affected area, manipulation of the affected tissue must be augmented with magnification. Sunken Eye Sinusitis A syndrome characterized by periorbital depression (sunken sinus syndrome) has been described as a sequela to sinusitis in macaws, conures and emus. Progressive collapse of the epithelium into the in- fraorbital sinus around the eye is typical (Color 22. Gram-negative organisms have been isolated from the infraorbital sinuses and choana of affected birds. Ocular pathology or radiologic changes consistent with bone involvement are uncommon. Fluid introduced to the nasal cavity would not pass into the oral cavity, and endoscopy and rhinography were used to document choanal atresia (courtesy of Cheryl Greenacre). Sterile saline in- troduced into the nostrils would not pass from the nares to the oral cavity. Contrast media placed in the nares stopped abruptly at the level of a thickened palate, confirming the diagnosis of choanal atresia (see Figure 12. Upper respiratory disease, wheezing, sneezing and insufflation of the infraorbital air sacs on expiration can be early clinical changes associated with the accumulation of debris in the nares. Subtle lesions can best be detected by examining the area around the operculum using magnification. It is best to re- move accumulating necrotic debris by probing and flushing before it accumulates and alters the archi- tecture of the nares or sinus passages (see Chapter 41). Note the enlargement of the nostril, absence of the operculum and swelling of the perinasal sive parenteral, topical and nebulization therapy. Toxins Lower Respiratory Disease Clinical Presentation Coughing, dyspnea, open-mouthed breathing, tail-bobbing, low exercise tolerance, depression Diagnostic Techniques History Auscultation of lungs and air sacs Radiography Laparoscopy Culture, flush or biopsy Visualize lungs and air sacs Nonrespiratory Diseases Foreign Body Parasites Air Sacculitis Pneumonia Respiratory Allergy with Respiratory Signs Inhalation Abscess 1. Once an infection is resolved and the sinus Bacterial and fungal organisms are commonly asso- pathways are patent, the collapsed sinus should re- ciated with acute and chronic air sac infections. Within a flock of one hundred six- air sacs are poorly vascularized and have no clear- month-old emus, two birds developed this syndrome, ance mechanism (mucociliary blanket), which com- suggesting a low prevalence of the problem in a given plicates the treatment of air sacculitis. Surgical debridement may be necessary to re- The inhalation of foreign bodies (seeds, granuloma- solve air sac infections that result in the formation of tous plaques, splinters and toys) occasionally occurs masses.
Which one of the following histologic or immunofluorescent findings is most indicative of a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction? Minutes after a donor kidney is connected to the recipient’s blood ves- sels discount atarax 25mg fast delivery, the transplanted kidney turns blue buy 25mg atarax overnight delivery, becomes flaccid, excretes a few drops of bloody urine, and has to be removed. Histologic examination of the kidney reveals neutrophils within arterioles, glomeruli, and peritubular capillaries. A 28-year-old female with arthritis and a bimalar photosensitive, erythematous rash on her face b. A 65-year-old female who develops Congo red–positive extracellular deposits in her liver c. A 35-year-old female who presents with dry eyes, a dry mouth, and enlarged salivary glands e. A 47-year-old female who presents with periorbital lilac discoloration and ery- thema on the dorsal portions of her hands 60 Pathology 82. Workup reveals decreased left ventricular filling due to decreased compliance of the left ventricle. Two months later the patient dies, and postmortem sections reveal deposits of eosinophilic, Congo red–positive material in the intersti- tium of his heart. When viewed under polarized light, this material dis- plays an apple-green birefringence. Workup during the woman’s second pregnancy reveals that the fetus has the same abnormality found in her first son. It is then injected intraperitoneally by percutaneous, ultrasound-guided injection at 16, 17. This mass is resected and histologic examination reveals a tumor composed of cells having elongated, spindle-shaped nuclei. The tumor does not connect to the overlying epithelium and is found only in the wall of the stomach. The pathology report from a biopsy specimen indicates that this mass is an invasive adenocarcinoma. Which one of the listed descriptions best describes the most likely histologic appearance of this tumor? A 35-year-old male presents with the new onset of a “bulge” in his left inguinal area. After performing a physical examination, you diagnose the bulge to be an inguinal hernia. You refer the patient to a surgeon, who repairs the hernia and sends the resected hernia sac to the pathology labo- ratory along with some adipose tissue, which he calls a “lipoma of the cord. Which one of the following features would have been present had the lesion been a lipoma rather than normal adipose tissue? Which one of the listed numbered sequences best illustrates the pos- tulated sequence of events that precedes the formation of an infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix? The lesion is removed surgically, and histologic sections reveal sheets of malignant cells with clear cytoplasm (clear cell carcinoma). Point mutations of the oncogene c-ras can result in the inability of the product of this oncogene to bind with a. A 4-year-old African boy develops a rapidly enlarging mass that involves the right side of his face. Biopsies of this lesion reveal a prominent “starry sky” pattern produced by proliferating small, noncleaved malignant lymphocytes. Based on this microscopic appearance, the diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma is made. A 76-year-old male farmer presents with a 2-cm mass on the left side of his forehead. A 17-year-old male presents with a lesion on his face that measures approximately 1. He has a history of numer- ous similar skin lesions that have occurred mainly in sun-exposed areas. Gastric carcinoma is most common in which one of the listed geo- graphic locations? Workup reveals that his anemia is the result of bleeding from a colon cancer located in the sigmoid colon. Which of the listed markers would be most useful for future follow-up of this patient for the evaluation of possible metastatic disease from his colon cancer? A smear of material obtained from one of these vesicles reveals several multinucleated giant cells with intranuclear inclusions and ground- glass nuclei. A 19-year-old man living in New Mexico presents to a local clinic after a 1-day history of fever, myalgia, chills, headache, and malaise. He complains of vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, tachypnea, and a pro- ductive cough. He is treated with antibiotics, but the next day he develops acute respiratory failure with cardiopulmonary arrest and dies. Postmortem examination of the lungs reveals intraalveolar edema, rare hyaline mem- branes, and a few interstitial lymphoid aggregates.
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