By K. Ramon. Meredith College.
The blood vessels buy floxin 400 mg amex, the routes by which the blood travels to and through the tissues and back to the heart buy floxin 400 mg otc. However, it differ from other connective tissues in that its cells are not fixed in position, instead they move freely in the liquid portion of the blood, the plasma. Blood is a viscous (thick) fluid that varies in colour from bright to dark red, depending on how much oxygen it is carrying. Its quantity differs with the size of the person; the average adult male, weighing 70 kg has about 5-6 litres of blood. The circulating blood is of fundamental importance in maintaining the internal environment in a constant state (homeaostasis). Oxygen- from inhaled air diffuses into the blood through the thin lung membranes and is carried to all the tissue of the body. Carbon dioxide, a waste product of cell metabolism, is carried from the tissues to the lungs, where it is breathed out. These materials may inter the blood from the digestive system or may be released into the blood from body stores. The kidney removes excess water, minerals, and urea from protein metabolism and maintains the acid-base balance of the blood. The blood serves to regulate the amount of fluid in the tissues by means of substances (mainly proteins) that maintain the proper osmotic pressure 246 Human Anatomy and Physiology C. The blood transports heat that is generated in the muscles to other parts of the body thus aiding in the regulation of body temperature by the blood, thus aiding in the regulation of body temperature. Composition of Blood The blood is composed of two prime elements: as already mentioned, the liquid element is called plasma; the cells and fragments of cells are called formed elements or corpuscles (Figure 9-1). Leukocytes, from leuko, meaning “white,” are the several types of white blood cells, which protect against infection. Blood cells (From Memmler and Wood: The Human Body in Health and Disease, ed 6, Philadelphia, 1987, J. The plasma content varies somewhat, since the substances carried by the blood to and from the organs get used and added to. For example, the level of glucose, a simple sugar, 248 Human Anatomy and Physiology is maintained at a remarkably constant level of about on tenth of a 1% solution. Proteins are the principal constituents of cytoplasm and are essential to the growth and the rebuilding of body tissues. Albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is important for maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood. A system of enzymes made of several proteins, collectively known as complement, helps antibodies in their fight against pathogens. The principal form of carbohydrate found in the plasma is glucose, which is absorbed by the capillaries of the intestine following digestion. The 249 Human Anatomy and Physiology mineral salts in the plasma appear primarily as chloride, carbonate, or phosphate salts of sodium, potassium, and magnesium. These salts have a variety of functions, including the formation of bone (calcium and phosphorus), the production of hormones by certain glands (iodine for the production of thyroid hormone), the transportation of the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide (iron), and the maintenance of the acid base balance (sodium and potassium carbonates and phosphates). The Formed Elements Erythrocytes Erythrocytes, the red cells, are tiny, disk-shaped bodies with a central area that is thinner than the edges. They are different from other cells in that the mature form found in the circulating blood does not have a nucleus. These cells, like almost all the blood cells, live a much shorter time (120 days) than most other cells in the body, some of which last a lifetime. Haemoglobin that has given up its oxygen is able to carry hydrogen ions; in this way, haemoglobin acts as a buffer and plays an important role in acid-base balance. The red cells also carry a small amount of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lings for elimination in exhalation. It displaces the oxygen that is normally carried by the haemoglobin and reduces the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood. Carbon monoxide may be produced by the incomplete burning of various fuels, such as gasoline, coal, wood, and other carbon containing materials. Leukocytes The leukocytes, or white blood cells, are very different from the erythrocytes in appearance, quantity, and function. They contain 251 Human Anatomy and Physiology nuclei of varying shapes and sizes; the cells themselves are round. Leukocytes are outnumbered by red cells by 700 to 1, numbering 5,000 to 10,000 per cubic millimetre of blood. The different types of white blood cells are identified by their size, the shape of the nucleus, and the appearance of granules in the cytoplasm when the cells are stained, usually with Wright’s blood stain.
The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae are sharply curved (U-shaped) to allow for passage of the cervical spinal nerves buy floxin 400 mg online. The superior and inferior articular processes of the cervical vertebrae are flattened and largely face upward or downward order 400mg floxin free shipping, respectively. The first cervical (C1) vertebra is also called the atlas, because this is the vertebra that supports the skull on top of the vertebral column (in Greek mythology, Atlas was the god who supported the heavens on his shoulders). The transverse processes of the atlas are longer and extend more laterally than do the transverse processes of any other cervical vertebrae. The superior articular processes face upward and are deeply curved for articulation with the occipital condyles on the base of the skull. The inferior articular processes are flat and face downward to join with the superior articular processes of the C2 vertebra. The second cervical (C2) vertebra is called the axis, because it serves as the axis for rotation when turning the head toward the right or left. The axis resembles typical cervical vertebrae in most respects, but is easily distinguished by the dens (odontoid process), a bony projection that extends upward from the vertebral body. The dens joins with the inner aspect of the anterior arch of the atlas, where it is held in place by transverse ligament. The axis (C2 vertebra) has the upward projecting dens, which articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas. Thoracic Vertebrae The bodies of the thoracic vertebrae are larger than those of cervical vertebrae (Figure 7. The characteristic feature for a typical midthoracic vertebra is the spinous process, which is long and has a pronounced downward angle that causes it to overlap the next inferior vertebra. The superior articular processes of thoracic vertebrae face anteriorly and the inferior processes face posteriorly. These orientations are important determinants for the type and range of movements available to the thoracic region of the vertebral column. Thoracic vertebrae have several additional articulation sites, each of which is called a facet, where a rib is attached. Most thoracic vertebrae have two facets located on the lateral sides of the body, each of which is called a costal facet (costal = “rib”). It also has articulation sites (facets) on the vertebral body and a transverse process for rib attachment. Lumbar Vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae carry the greatest amount of body weight and are thus characterized by the large size and thickness of the vertebral body (Figure 7. The articular processes are large, with the superior process facing backward and the inferior facing forward. Sacrum and Coccyx The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone that is thick and wide across its superior base where it is weight bearing and then tapers down to an inferior, non-weight bearing apex (Figure 7. It is formed by the fusion of five sacral vertebrae, a process that does not begin until after the age of 20. On the anterior surface of the older adult sacrum, the lines of vertebral fusion can be seen as four transverse ridges. On the posterior surface, running down the midline, is the median sacral crest, a bumpy ridge that is the remnant of the fused spinous processes (median = “midline”; while medial = “toward, but not necessarily at, the midline”). Lateral to this is the roughened auricular surface, which joins with the ilium portion of the hipbone to form the immobile sacroiliac joints of the pelvis. Passing inferiorly through the sacrum is a bony tunnel called the sacral canal, which terminates at the sacral hiatus near the inferior tip of the sacrum. The anterior and posterior surfaces of the sacrum have a series of paired openings called sacral foramina (singular = foramen) that connect to the sacral canal. Each of these openings is called a posterior (dorsal) sacral foramen or anterior (ventral) sacral foramen. These openings allow for the anterior and posterior branches of the sacral spinal nerves to exit the sacrum. The superior articular process of the sacrum, one of which is found on either side of the superior opening of the sacral canal, articulates with the inferior articular processes from the L5 vertebra. The coccyx, or tailbone, is derived from the fusion of four very small coccygeal vertebrae (see Figure 7. The fused spinous processes form the median sacral crest, while the lateral sacral crest arises from the fused transverse processes. Intervertebral Discs and Ligaments of the Vertebral Column The bodies of adjacent vertebrae are strongly anchored to each other by an intervertebral disc. This structure provides padding between the bones during weight bearing, and because it can change shape, also allows for movement between the vertebrae. Although the total amount of movement available between any two adjacent vertebrae is small, when these movements are summed together along the entire length of the vertebral column, large body movements can be produced. Ligaments that extend along the length of the vertebral column also contribute to its overall support and stability. Intervertebral Disc An intervertebral disc is a fibrocartilaginous pad that fills the gap between adjacent vertebral bodies (see Figure 7. Because of this, intervertebral discs are thin in the cervical region and thickest in the lumbar region, which carries the most body weight.
Certainly buy 200mg floxin visa, in been shown to have a higher this population 200mg floxin with visa, this would be of degree of selectivity for the M3 greater signifcance due to the over the M2 receptor compared existence of comorbidity and the with other anticholinergics, with susceptibility to impaired cognitive marginal selectivity for the M1 function and nervous system receptor. Defnitive comment on after oral administration of this subject will inevitably await darifenacin, peak plasma adequately powered head – to – concentrations are reached after head comparative studies. Dose approximately 7 hours with fexibility has been explored with multiple dosing, and steady – darifenacin and clearly showed state plasma concentrations that some people who do not are achieved by the sixth day respond to a lower dose of drug of dosing. M1 and M3 receptor have found to fulfll the criteria been attributed to dry mouth, for level1 evidence according M1 to cognitive impairment, M2 to the Oxford assessment 36 system and were given grade of symptoms caused by signifcant A recommendations by the genital atrophy. Ethipramine Generally there is little or no good evidence to choose between the Tricyclic anti – depressants have anticholinergics been used widely for symptoms of frequency, urgency, urge incontinence and especially Oestrogen nocturia for many years. Although grade 1 evidence justifying their Whilst the use of oestrogen in the use is lacking, many patients treatment of women with stress are satisfed with the results. Dry mouth and drowsiness effects of oestrogen on the pelvic are the most bothersome side foor, and not precipitate a host effects, limiting its use. The International be used to advantage, allowing Continence Society advocates the increased evening dosage. The use of imipramine is parallel to that of ethipramine – with the proviso that it remains untested as a pure anticholinergic for use The future in incontinence. Imipramine is primarily, with amytriptyline, an There is an overall trend towards antidepressant, and its useful development of once daily anticholinergic effects are purely extended release preparations for fortuitous. Clinicians must be existing anticholinergics, such as aware that these agents are of extended release oxybutynin and limited use as niche agents, and propiverine. Multiple strengths that ethipramine is perhaps more are now available in certain once clinically useful. These last two options have superceded bladder augmentation by bowel interposition, since they are far less invasive, are reversible, and have fewer side effects. Previously, for Overactive Bladder is fuid the only therapeutic option for management, bladder retraining these patients was surgery in the and anticholinergic drug therapy. There are, however, a subset of These operations, however, women who do not respond to carry a high morbidity with these standard treatment regimens most having voiding dysfunction and remain incontinent, their requiring clean intermittent self symptoms having a profound catheterization, and troublesome impact on their quality of life. Studies have shown that only A number of newer promising 18% of women stay on their treatment options have been drug treatment for longer than developed, including Botulinum 6 months. It blocks the gauge needle that is threaded release of acetylcholine at the through the working channel of neuromuscular junction in the the scope. Amongst those into 20 ml of normal saline and who have contributed to the injected in 1ml aliquots under science of Botulinum Toxin, credit local or general anaesthesia. There that trigonal injections are not are 7 subtypes, A, B, C, D, E, F , associated with refux and have G, however only Toxins A and B equivalent effcacy to the extra- are available commercially. Schurch et al were the frst to use Botox® has been more extensively intradetrusor Botox injections for evaluated in the literature than the treatment of severe detrusor Dysport®, but there are now overactivity in spinal cord injured a number of studies that now patients. Botox® is were demonstrated, with 17 of 19 three times more potent than patients achieving continence. Up to six months self catheterization or have a follow-up, they reported a 50 % suprapubic catheter inserted. The urodynamic fndings detrusor lasts for approximately compared to placebo were six to nine months and it usually remarkable with highly signifcant requires repeat administration increases in maximum cystometric following this. As the urgency and capacity at two, six and 24 weeks urge incontinence return, normal compared to placebo. In need to add to this the costs of a further randomized controlled administration, including surgeons trial, Sahai et al report profound fees, theatre time and disposables. This device works by implanting a pacemaker-like neurostimulator The main adverse event following in the lower back that sends mild Botulinum injections is temporary electrical impulses to electrodes urinary retention, with a reported that are usually placed adjacent incidence of between 19% to to the third sacral nerve root. This involves stimulation of Another trial that followed somatosensory ascending tracts patients up for a mean of more projecting from the bladder into than 5 years reported continued the pontine micturition centre success in 76% of the cohort. The electrical impulses also activate the pelvic Despite these success rates, this efferent hypogastric sympathetic therapeutic option is not accessible nerves, which promotes to the majority of women largely continence. The test phase includes the available in South Africa, supplied temporary insertion of a needle by Medtronic, but retails for into the sacral foramen under approximately R55000. If the subject reports a equipment including pain and satisfactory response after three to discomfort, seroma formation, four weeks, defned as more than disturbed bowel function and 50% improvement in symptoms, wound dehiscence. Posterior Tibial Nerve of a long-term battery and Stimulation neurostimulator in the buttock and Because of the technical and lower back. The follow up, with a further 29% technique is performed by passing reporting more than 50% an electric current between a 43 small acupuncture needle 4cm of neuromodulation and Botox above the medial malleoulus and has provided us with additional an electrode on the sole of the options prior to resorting to patient’s foot. Alternative therapy equipment, including a single use A number of studies have shown electrode and needle and this acupuncture to be a useful unfortunately drives up the cost of adjunct to therapy. The treatment performed in the late 1980’s regime consists of up to 12 weekly reported a 77% reduction in sessions of 30 minutes although urgency and frequency in 77% of it may be effcacious after shorter their patients versus only 20% treatment periods, it does not last in placebo.
It has limitations in its ability to detect aspiration during the swallow and aspiration has to be assumed from post-swallow residue patterns in the pharynx and larynx order floxin 400mg visa. However it is not associated with radiation exposure and can be repeated whenever necessary 400 mg floxin with amex. The clinical question to be addressed is how best to assess the presence and severity of swallowing difficulties after stroke. The patient populations were broadly comparable, except one study reported on stroke patients who were younger in comparison to the other studies (mean 60 years). The table below reports the data for any clinical evidence of dysphagia or aspiration. Dysphagia 82/128 (64%) 73% 89% 92% 65% (62 to 82%) (76 to 96%) (83 to 97%) (52 to 77%) Mann et al. Aspiration 28/128 (22%) 93% 63% 41% 97% (76 to 99%) (53 to 72%) (29 to 54%) (89 to 100%) McCullough et al. The sensitivity and specificity of screening is such that some patients will be judged unsafe to swallow when there is no evidence on instrumental assessment that they are aspirating, and a smaller number will be assessed as safe to swallow when in fact they are not. There is good evidence for a link between dysphagia and poor clinical outcome (chest infection, death, disability, discharge destination, length of stay) reinforcing the need for early detection and management. Although aspiration is clearly associated with worse outcome, there is no evidence that the withdrawal or modification of oral intake prevents chest infection or other adverse outcomes. Research evidence is lacking and would be difficult to obtain, as it would be unethical to give oral food or most fluids to patients who are aspirating although a trial of water in this situation might be possible. Both techniques may be difficult to interpret especially by inexperienced practitioners and specialist training is necessary. All assessments only reveal the swallow at one moment in time so all patients need careful monitoring and observation and reassessment when necessary. The group were concerned that patients with persistent dysphagia were at risk of malnutrition and that those patients who remained dysphagic after 3 days should have access to detailed instrumental examination. They also felt that it is important to distinguish whether or not tube feeding is required, and that if tube feeding is required then it is commenced as soon as possible. There was concern from the group that the recommendation was based on relatively little evidence. R44 If the admission screen indicates problems with swallowing, the person should have a specialist assessment of swallowing, preferably within 24 hours of admission and not more than 72 hours afterwards. R45 People with suspected aspiration on specialist assessment or who require tube feeding or dietary modification for 3 days should be: q reassessed and be considered for instrumental examination q referred for dietary advice. They may rarely be mis-inserted in the trachea, or not inserted far enough into the oesophagus with the risk in both cases that feed may be introduced into the trachea. There are rare risks of perforation particularly in patients who have difficulty cooperating with the procedure. These risks are in general outweighed by the benefit of adequate feeding but there is little evidence to suggest the optimum time for tube insertion. Occasionally, perhaps in a severely ill patient with a poor prognosis, a decision will be made to withdraw active treatment and insertion of a feeding tube may not be appropriate. Non-commencement or withdrawal of feeding is a difficult decision which should be made in full consultation with the patient (where possible) and family, as well as the multidisciplinary team, taking into account the patient’s best interest, any advance directives and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. The clinical question to be addressed is when is the most appropriate time to initiate tube feeding in patients with acute stroke who cannot swallow safely. The study compared early with delayed feeding, but that in reality people could be randomised up to 3 days post event and then took 1–2 days to start feeding, so this may lead to underestimation of the possible benefit/harm of very early feeding. Patients were followed up at 6 months by a person blinded to the intervention they had received. Although the confidence intervals for the effect of early feeding are wide, meaning that the data are consistent with significant benefit or harm, it was felt by the group to be more biologically plausible to have a small benefit from early tube feeding rather than a negative effect. The clinical question to be addressed is whether patients who are not identified as being malnourished should receive nutritional supplementation after stroke. The majority of patients had relatively minor strokes due to the exclusion criteria of not having a swallowing impairment. Although routine nutritional supplementation is not associated with improved outcomes there is no evidence in the trial to support withholding of focused supplementation from those who are assessed as malnourished. There is evidence from systematic review179 of benefits of nutritional supplementation in malnourished elderly people. For those at risk of malnutrition, nutrition support should be initiated, which may include oral nutritional supplements, referral for dietary advice and/or tube feeding. R50 Screening for malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition should be carried out by healthcare professionals with appropriate skills and training. R52 Nutrition support should be initiated for people with stroke who are at risk of malnutrition. This may include oral nutritional supplements, specialist dietary advice and/or tube feeding.
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