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Hildegard Peplau: Nursing is a therapeutic order 10 mg celexa fast delivery, on the level of current knowledge about a interpersonal celexa 40mg cheap, and goal-oriented process. Data that researchers collect from subjects who requires help to reach independence. A hypothesis is based on the independent ill person in the healthcare setting; describes variables that the researcher finds. Martha Rogers: A focus on rehabilitation, conditions that are manipulated or identi- encompassing nursing’s autonomy in the fied to determine the effects of the depend- therapeutic use of cure and care. Instruments are the devices used to collect self-care deficits require nursing actions. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Systems are hierarchical in nature and are functions that bring about a desired goal composed of interrelated subsystems that 2. Systems are not separated from each other and construct our perceptions of life by boundaries. A system communicates with and reacts to the common purpose of contributing an its environment through input and output. The theory describes the process by which living matter adjusts to other living 7. Defines a continuously occurring process coercion, or to refuse to participate without that effects change and involves interac- jeopardizing the care he/she will receive. Outlines human growth as a predictable supported by reliable research-based evidence. Adaptation theory principles of the following theories that are basic to many nursing concepts. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Which nursing theorist(s) best defines your own personal beliefs about nursing practice, and why? Describe how three different theories of nursing would direct the nursing care (identification and management of health/nursing needs) of c. A teacher who reported the inci- dent is close to the girl and asks to speak to the 3. Cultural influences on nursing: a piece of paper, along with a brief description of their basic tenets (refer to Table 5-1 in the textbook). Interview your faculty, nurses you know, and classmates and have them rank the theories in order of importance based on their own system of beliefs. Educational influences on nursing: give you an example of their personal philoso- phy that they would like to incorporate into their nursing practice. Note which theory was most widely respected, and determine its value to your own practice. Improved communication in nursing: Scenario: Charlotte Horn, the daughter of a 57-year-old patient being discharged with an order for intermittent nasogastric tube feedings, is being taught how to perform the procedure. During one of the teaching sessions, Charlotte asks several questions: “How will I know the e. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, concerns regarding the care of her mother? Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. An action is right or wrong depending on the process used to arrive at the action. The rightness or wrongness of an action is not dependent on the process used to arrive Circle the letter that corresponds to the best at the action. When a nurse is able to recognize that an ethi- oped by the American Hospital Association to cal moment has occurred with a patient, he/ enumerate the rights and responsibilities of she is experiencing which of the following patients while receiving hospital care? A nurse who is caring for a new mother realizes agency could be described as the cultivated that the woman is not prepared to go home dispositions that allow one to act as one with her newborn after a hospital stay of only believes one ought to act? Ethical dissatisfaction support that patients and their families need to make the decision that is right for them, 3. Which of the following principles applies to he/she is practicing which of the following utilitarian action guiding theory? A nurse becomes a mentor to a student well-being over the claims of the patient’s nurse working on her floor. A nurse respects the right of a Native Amer- ican to call in a shaman for a consultation.

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The theory is useful to satisfying discount celexa 10mg on line, and meaningful to the people nurses and to nursing and to professionals in nurses serve purchase celexa 20mg. The studies of the four cultures other disciplines such as physical, occupa- just reviewed (Lebanese Muslim, Anglo tional, and speech therapy, medicine, social American, African American, and German work, and pharmacy. Health-care practition- Americans) substantiate that the three modes ers in other disciplines are beginning to use are care centered and are based on the use of this theory because they also need to become generic care (emic) knowledge along with knowledgeable about and sensitive and re- professional care (etic) knowledge obtained sponsible to people of diverse cultures who from research using the culture care theory need care (Leininger, 2002). This chapter has reviewed only a small selection of the culture care findings from ethnonursing research studies conducted over the past four References decades. Culture care expression, meanings, and experi- ings of interest to practicing nurses who care ences of pregnant Mexican American women within Leininger’s for clients of all ages from diverse and similar culture care theory. Mexican American women’s expressions of the tional and community contexts around the meaning of culturally congruent prenatal care. Nursing and anthropology: Two worlds to found in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing blend. Transcultural nursing presents an exciting (1989 to 2004) and in the numerous books challenge. Caring: The essence and central focus Nurses in clinical practice are advised to con- of nursing. Nursing Research Foundation Report, 12(1), sult a list of research studies and doctoral dis- 2–14. Care: Discovery and uses in clinical and cultural and general nursing knowledge with community nursing. Journal of Transcultural mained the strongest advocates of the culture Nursing, 1(1), 4–16. Part I: The theory of culture care and cessity to advance nursing knowledge and practices. Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories, and practice (3rd Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Culture care diversity and universality: A study conceptualized within Leininger’s theory. Ethnonursing: A research method with American elderly residents within the environmental context of enablers to study the theory of culture care. Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories, Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(4), 186–192. Overview and reflection of the theory of German American elders within a nursing home context. Special research report: Dominant culture versity: A worldwide theory of nursing (2nd ed. Basic psychiatric concepts in ceiving professional nursing care: An ethnonursing study. Schoenhofer’s Nursing as Caring Theory 335 Introducing the Theorists as a discipline, the academic role in higher educa- tion, and the world of nursing theories and theo- Anne Boykin is dean and professor of the College of rists; and Anne Boykin, PhD, who introduced her Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. Lynne Center for Caring, Schoenhofer created and manages the Web site and which is housed in the College of Nursing. This discussion forum on the theory of nursing as caring center was created for the purpose of humanizing (www. She has demonstrated a long-standing commitment to the International Association for Introducing the Theory Human Caring, holding the following positions: president-elect (1990 to 1993), president (1993 to This chapter is intended as an overview of the the- 1996), and member of the nominating committee ory of nursing as caring, a general theory, frame- (1997 to 1999). The theory of served as coeditor of the journal International nursing as caring offers a view that permits a broad, Association for Human Caring from 1996 to 1999. This theory serves as an organizing frame- coauthored book, Nursing As Caring: A Model for work for nursing scholars in the various roles of Transforming Practice (1993), and the book Living a practitioner, researcher, administrator, teacher, and Caring-based Program (1994). She serves as theory in relation to practice and other nursing a consultant locally, regionally, nationally, and in- roles. In the second part of this chapter, Danielle ternationally on the topic of caring. Certain fundamental beliefs about what it means to Savina Schoenhofer’s initial nursing study was at be human underlie the theory of nursing as caring. Wichita State University, where she earned under- These assumptions, which will be illustrated later, graduate and graduate degrees in nursing, psychol- reflect a particular set of values and key themes that ogy, and counseling. She completed a PhD in provide a basis for understanding and explicating educational foundations and administration at the meaning of nursing, listed as follows and de- Kansas State University in 1983. In 1990, Schoen- tailed here: hofer cofounded Nightingale Songs, an early venue for communicating the beauty of nursing in poetry • Persons are caring by virtue of their humanness. In addition to her work on caring, in- • Persons are whole and complete in the moment. Model for Transforming Practice, she has written on • Personhood is a way of living grounded in nursing values, primary care, nursing education, caring.

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Therefore order 40 mg celexa fast delivery, we recommend that you complete the Label Replacement Exercise in Worksheet 5-15 each time you hear those destructive labels in your mind: 1 cheap 40mg celexa fast delivery. Tune into what you’re telling yourself when you feel upset, and listen for any time that you tag yourself with a hurtful label. Come up with alternative perspectives to the labels and record them in the right- hand column. In creating label replacements, try to accept any portion of the event that has truth in it, such as having gained some weight, but look at the issue more real- istically. Because labels tend to be overarching ratings (that is, they imply a bigger problem than the event that triggered them), your replacement thoughts should be specific and look for positive possibilities. Chapter 5: Untangling Twisted Thinking 71 Worksheet 5-15 My Label Replacement Exercise Event Corresponding Label Label Replacement Thought Now that you’ve completed the Label Replacement Exercise, take a few minutes to reflect on what self-labels have been doing to you and how it feels to change them (see Worksheet 5-16). You may accuse yourself of being inept, inca- pable, or inadequate and therefore fully culpable for all your suffering. When the Self-Blame Reality Scrambler is at work, you attribute all fault and blame to yourself. In this section, we give you a tool for figuring out if you use the Self-Blame Reality Scrambler. After you begin to understand that your problem isn’t completely your fault, you can take action on the portion for which you own responsibility. The Rating Responsibility Exercise helps you see that most problems have many causes and that you only own a portion of the responsibility. After you understand the causes of the problem, you’ll be more ready to do something produc- tive about it. Robin blames herself for her recent divorce and believes that she is almost entirely respon- sible for her husband leaving the marriage for another woman. Robin considers herself boring and unattractive, and she berates herself for not seeing the signs early enough to prevent what happened. Robin decides to take the Rating Responsibility Exercise (see Worksheet 5-17), focusing on the blame she places on herself for her divorce. Worksheet 5-17 Robin’s Rating Responsibility Exercise I blame myself for: My recent divorce I rate the blame at: 95% All Possible Causes of Your Problem Percentage of Responsibility My husband’s roving eye. My husband’s grief over losing his 10%: He could never talk about mother, father, and brother over the last these losses, and I know they got year and a half. My husband can easily find women more 5%: Yeah, but I do look better than attractive than me. Chapter 5: Untangling Twisted Thinking 73 All Possible Causes of Your Problem Percentage of Responsibility We had stopped talking about our days. As you can see, Robin initially assigns 95 percent of the blame for the divorce on herself. At the end of the quiz, Robin reassesses her level of responsibility because she’s able to see things a bit more objectively. She re-rates the level of blame she puts on herself and identi- fies that 20 percent seems more appropriate — she’s only partly responsible. Now that you’ve seen the Rating Responsibility Exercise in action, it’s time to evaluate the level of responsibility you feel you carry. Complete your Rating Responsibility Exercise in Worksheet 5-18 by fol- lowing these steps: 1. Using a percentage from 1 to 100, rate how much blame you put on yourself for this problem. At the top of the worksheet, write this percentage under the problem you’ve identified. In the right-hand column, using a number from 1 to 100, estimate the percentage of actual responsibility for this problem that each cause in the left-hand column owns. These folks usu- ally find a convenient scapegoat such as a mother, father, significant other, society, or event to blame for all their woes. Failing to accept any responsibility for your troubles makes you see yourself as helpless and the world as unfair and unjust (check out Chapter 3 for more information about such self-sabotaging beliefs). Realize that you don’t want to fall into that trap — read the next section to see how to avoid it. Doing What You Can to Solve the Problem In this section, you face your problem and take action to change it. By assessing your responsibility and determining what you can do about your problem, you avoid immersing yourself in self-loathing and harsh self-blame. This approach allows you to take respon- sibility for an appropriate portion of the problem and do what you can with it. If your responsibility involves something that’s over and done with, no action is possible. But you can still try to let go of the shame that leads nowhere and does nothing to help you. Robin reviews her Rating Responsibility Exercise (see Worksheet 5-17) and notices that she owns partial responsibility for some of the problems that led to her divorce. She lists those contributions and then plans steps for productive action on the Action Strategy Worksheet shown in Worksheet 5-19.

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In about 90–95 percent of people with high blood pressure 40mg celexa overnight delivery, there’s no identifiable cause purchase celexa 10 mg without prescription. This is referred to as essential hypertension or primary hypertension, which tends to develop gradually over many years. A combination of factors may be at play, such as diet, lifestyle, stress, and smoking. The other 5–10 percent of high blood pressure cases are secondary hypertension as they are caused by another underlying condition, such as kidney or adrenal dis- eases or heart defects. H High blood pressure is known as a silent killer because you can have it for years without knowing it, and then suddenly have a heart attack or stroke. Uncontrolled blood pressure can also cause organ damage, leading to increased risk of stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. If you have high blood pressure, it is critical to be under a doctor’s supervision. The strategies outlined in this chapter are not meant as a substitute for medical care. Lifestyle ap- proaches, such as proper nutrition, exercise, stress management, and supplements, can be used to complement your medical care. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can greatly increase your risk of heart disease, stroke, and kidney damage, so it is important to have your blood pressure checked regularly and discuss the results with your doctor. People working more than 51 hours a week had a 29 percent higher incidence of high blood pressure. Researchers tied the higher risk for workers with longer hours to unhealthy eating, less exercise, more stress, and less sleep. In Canada, one in four people work 50 hours or more per week; in 1991 it was one in 10 people working these long hours (Hypertension, 2006: 48; 744). There are several types of medications that are used depending on the stage of your blood pressure and whether you have other medical conditions. All of these drugs can cause side effects and sometimes your doctor may change the drug and/or dose a few times in order to get your blood pressure properly regulated with the least amount of side effects. Calcium channel blockers: Relax the muscles of the blood vessels and some slow the heart rate. Diuretics: Act on the kidney to help your body eliminate sodium and water, thereby reducing blood volume. Incorporate soy milk, tofu, soy protein (make shakes), and soy nuts into your diet. Apples, oranges, tomatoes, and bananas are a particularly good source of potassium. Avoid soft drinks because they contain high amounts of caffeine and provide no nutritional value. Avoid adding salt to foods and minimize eating processed and fast foods such as deli meats, snacks (chips, pretzels), french fries, and burgers. Regular ex- ercise, breathing techniques, and meditation are a few ways to reduce the effects of stress. Get your blood pressure and cholesterol checked and discuss the results with your doctor. Top Recommended Supplements Coenzyme Q10: An antioxidant that has been widely studied and found to lower blood pres- sure and cholesterol and strengthen the function of the heart. Fish oils: Over 30 studies have shown that the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil can help lower blood pressure, reduce atherosclerosis, and protect against heart attack. Garlic: Helps lower blood pressure and cholesterol, reduces clotting, and prevents plaque formation in the arteries. Most of the research showing benefits has been done on aged garlic extract (Kyolic). Potassium can cause stomach irritation in high doses and should not be combined with potassium-sparing diuretics or taken by those with kidney disease. Complementary Supplements Calcium and magnesium: Several studies have found that these minerals can promote modest reductions in blood pressure. It also helps the body eliminate heavy metals, such as lead, which can contribute to high blood pressure. Boost intake of fibre, eat more fish, potassium-rich foods, garlic, soy, and onions and drink green tea instead of coffee. It is an impor- tant component of cell membranes and is used in the formation of various hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, progesterone and cortisol, and bile acids. We get additional cholesterol from diet when we eat foods containing saturated fat and cholesterol. There are many natural ways to effectively lower cholesterol; following a healthy diet and getting regular exercise are essential.

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